JOURNAL OF BIOSCIENCE AND BIOTECHNOLOGY DISCOVERY
Integrity Research Journals

ISSN: 2536-7064
Model: Open Access/Peer Reviewed
DOI: 10.31248/JBBD
Start Year: 2016
Email: jbbd@integrityresjournals.org


Induction od resistance against Penicillin expansum in harvested apple fruits using walnut green water extract

https://doi.org/10.31248/JBBD2020.135   |   Article Number: AF4B6F3D2   |   Vol.5 (3) - October 2020

Received Date: 25 July 2020   |   Accepted Date: 10 September 2020  |   Published Date: 30 October 2020

Authors:  Esmaeil Zangoei , Eidi Bazgir* , Jalal Gholamnezhad and Mostafa Darvishnia

Keywords: Antioxidant enzymes, apple blue mold, Penicillium expansum, walnut green skin.

In this study, apple fruits were first treated with different concentrations (1.5, 3, 4.5 and 6×1000) of walnut green skin water extract and Penicillium expensum pathogen. The activity of defense enzymes including of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, polyphenol oxidase, superoxide dismutase and β(1,3) glucanase were measured in the treated apple fruits in the sampling days, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 days after pathogen induction of fruit. Then, genes expression levels encoding these enzymes were assessed by Real-time PCR. The results showed that the activity of the studied enzymes increased from the third day of sampling to the 9th day and then decreased until the 15th day. Pathogen and walnut green skin both increased the enzyme activity. As the concentration of the walnut green skin extracts increased, the activity of the enzymes increased. The highest activity of PAL, PPO, SOD and Glu enzymes was observed at day 9 at concentrations of 6×1000 with values 11.28 (U per mg protein), 5.37 (∆OD per min per mg of total protein), 26.87 (U per mg mg protein) and 23.89 (∆OD per min per mg of total protein), respectively. The results of measurement of gene expression were also in accordance with the activity of enzymes. Exactly on the 9th day, the highest gene expression was observed for the genes expressing each enzyme and in the treatment of both pathogens and extracts. The gene expression levels of PAL, PPO, SOD and Glu enzymes at 9th day and in apple treated with pathogen and green walnut skin extracts were 121, 148, 150 and 148 times higher than those genes in the healthy apples as control, respectively.

Anokwuru, C. P., Anyasor, G. N., Ajibaye, O., Fakoya, O., & Okebugwu, P. (2011). Effect of extraction solvents on phenolic, flavonoid and antioxidant activities of three Nigerian medicinal plants. Nature and Science, 9(7), 53-61.
 
Araji, S., Grammer, T. A., Gertzen, R., Anderson, S. D., Mikulic-Petkovsek, M., Veberic, R., Phu, M. L., Solar, A., Leslie, C. A., Dandekar, A. M., & Escobar, M. A. (2014). Novel roles for the polyphenol oxidase enzyme in secondary metabolism and the regulation of cell death in walnut. Plant Physiology, 164(3), 1191-1203.
Crossref
 
Blanco, F., Salinas, P., Cecchini, N. M., Jordana, X., Van Hummelen, P., Alvarez, M. E., & Holuigue, L. (2009). Early genomic responses to salicylic acid in Arabidopsis. Plant Molecular Biology, 70(1-2), 79-102.
Crossref
 
Cosentino, S. C. I. G., Tuberoso, C. I. G., Pisano, B., Satta, M. L., Mascia, V., Arzedi, E., & Palmas, F. (1999). In‐vitro antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Sardinian thymus essential oils. Letters in applied microbiology, 29(2), 130-135.
Crossref
 
Deborah, S. D., Palaniswami, A., Vidhyasekaran, P., & Velazhahan, R. (2001). Time-course study of the induction of defense enzymes, phenolics and lignin in rice in response to infection by pathogen and non-pathogen. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, 108(2), 204-216.
 
Errampalli, D. (2004). Effect of fludioxonil on germination and growth of Penicillium expansum and decay in apple cvs. Empire and Gala. Crop Protection, 23(9), 811-817.
Crossref
 
Feldberg, R. S., Chang, S. C., Kotik, A. N., Nadler, M., Neuwirth, Z., Sundstrom, D. C., & Thompson, N. H. (1988). In vitro mechanism of inhibition of bacterial cell growth by allicin. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 32(12), 1763-1768.
Crossref
 
Forell, G. V., Robertson, D., Lee, S. Y., & Cook, D. D. (2015). Preventing lodging in bioenergy crops: a biomechanical analysis of maize stalks suggests a new approach. Journal of Experimental Botany, 66(14), 4367-4371.
Crossref
 
Garmendia, I., Aguirreolea, J., & Goicoechea, N. (2006). Defence-related enzymes in pepper roots during interactions with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and/or Verticillium dahliae. BioControl, 51, Article number 293.
Crossref
 
Gholamnejad, J. (2009). Studies on biological control of blue mold in apple by some yeast isolates and their mechanisms of antagonism (Doctoral dissertation, M. Sc. dissertation, University of Tehran. P. 152(In Farsi).
 
Gholamnejad, J., Etebarian, H. R., Roustaee, A., & Sahebani, N. A. (2009). Biological control of apples blue mold by isolates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 49(3), 270-275.
Crossref
 
Gholamnezhad J (2017) Effect of plant extracts against apple gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea. Applied Microbiology in Food Industries, 3(1), 53-66
 
Gholamnezhad, J. (2019). Effect of plant extracts on activity of some defense enzymes of apple fruit in interaction with Botrytis cinerea. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 18(1), 115-123.
Crossref
 
Gholamnezhad, J., Sanjarian, F., Mohammadi goltapeh, E., Safaei, N., & Razavi, K. H. (2013). The evaluation of salicylic acid effect on septorios disease by Mycospharella graminicola, Research in Plant Pathology, 2(2):35-46
 
Gill, S. S., & Tuteja, N. (2010). Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 48(12), 909-930.
Crossref
 
Gurnani, N., Gupta, M., Mehta, D., & Mehta, B. K. (2016). Chemical composition, total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of crude extracts from red chilli seeds (Capsicum frutescens L.). Journal of Taibah University for Science, 10(4), 462-470.
Crossref
 
Hosseini, S. M., Hasanloo, T., & Mohammadi, S. (2015). Physiological characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and gene expression in 2 spring canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivars under drought stress conditions. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 39(3), 413-420.
Crossref
 
Hussein, M. M., Abo-Elyousr, K. A., Hassan, M. A., Hashem, M., Hassan, E. A., & Alamri, S. A. (2018). Induction of defense mechanisms involved in disease resistance of onion blight disease caused by Botrytis allii. Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control, 28, Article number 80.
Crossref
 
Ippolito, A., El Ghaouth, A., Wilson, C. L., & Wisniewski, M. (2000). Control of postharvest decay of apple fruit by Aureobasidium pullulans and induction of defense responses. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 19(3), 265-272.
Crossref
 
Koche, D., & Choudhary, A. (2012). Induction of hydrolases and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase by pathogen derived elicitors in mungbean (Vigna radiata L.). Electronic Journal of Biology, 8(1), 11-14.
 
Lee, M. R. F., Tweed, J. K. S., & Sullivan, M. L. (2013). Oxidation of ortho‐diphenols in red clover with and without polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and their role in PPO activation and inactivation. Grass and Forage Science, 68(1), 83-92.
Crossref
 
Maeda, H., & Dudareva, N. (2012). The shikimate pathway and aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in plants. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 63, 73-105.
Crossref
 
Maoz, M., & Neeman, I. (1998). Antimicrobial effects of aqueous plant extracts on the fungi Microsporum canis and Trichophyton rubrum and on three bacterial species. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 26, 61-63.
Crossref
 
Mari, M., Guidarelli, M., Martini, C., & Spadoni, A. (2012). First report of Colletotrichum acutatum causing bitter rot on apple in Italy. Plant Disease, 96(1), 144-144.
Crossref
 
Morales, H., Marín, S., Ramos, A. J., & Sanchis, V. (2010). Influence of post-harvest technologies applied during cold storage of apples in Penicillium expansum growth and patulin accumulation: A review. Food Control, 21(7), 953-962.
Crossref
 
Niem, J., Miyara, I., Ettedgui, Y., Reuveni, M., Flaishman, M., & Prusky, D. (2007). Core rot development in red delicious apples is affected by susceptibility of the seed locule to Alternaria alternata colonization. Phytopathology, 97(11), 1415-1421.
Crossref
 
Perez-Lopez, A. J., del Amor, F. M., Serrano‐Martínez, A., Fortea, M. I., & Núñez‐Delicado, E. (2007). Influence of agricultural practices on the quality of sweet pepper fruits as affected by the maturity stage. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 87(11), 2075-2080.
Crossref
 
Sever, Z., Ivić, D., Kos, T., & Miličević, T. (2012). Identification of Fusarium species isolated from stored apple fruit in Croatia. Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, 63(4), 463-470.
Crossref
 
Shi, C., Dai, Y., Xia, B., Xu, X., Xie, Y., & Liu, Q. (2001). The purification and spectral properties of polyphenol oxidase I fromNicotiana tabacum. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter, 19(4), 381-382.
Crossref
 
Sutton, T. B., Aldwinckle, H. S., Agnello, A. M., & Walgenbach, J. F. (Eds.). (2014). Compendium of apple and pear diseases and pests. St. Paul, MN: American Phytopathological Society.
Crossref
 
Thipyapong, P., Hunt, M. D., & Steffens, J. C. (2004). Antisense downregulation of polyphenol oxidase results in enhanced disease susceptibility. Planta, 220, 105-117.
Crossref
 
Vero, S., Mondino, P., Burgaeno, J., Soubes, M., & Wisniewski, M. (2002) Chracterizatioin of biological activity of two yeast strains from Uruguay against blue mold of apple. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 26, 91-98.
Crossref
 
Vogt, T. (2010). Phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Molecular Plant, 3(1), 2-20.
Crossref
 
Wang, J. W., Zheng, L. P., Wu, J. Y., & Tan, R. X. (2006). Involvement of nitric oxide in oxidative burst, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activation and Taxol production induced by low-energy ultrasound in Taxus yunnanensis cell suspension cultures. Nitric Oxide, 15(4), 351-358.
Crossref
 
Weber, R. W. (2011). Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis, cause of a new storage rot of apples in Northern Europe. Journal of Phytopathology, 159(10), 682-686.
Crossref
 
Winterbourn, C. C., Hawkins, R. E., Brian, M., & Carrell, R. W. (1975). The estimation of red cell superoxide dismutase activity. The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, 85(2), 337-341.
 
Xiao, C. L., & Boal, R. J. (2009). Preharvest application of a boscalid and pyraclostrobin mixture to control postharvest gray mold and blue mold in apples. Plant Disease, 93(2), 185-189.
Crossref
 
Yuliani, S., & Rusli, S. (2003). Extraction of botanical pesticides. Indonesian Spice and Medicinal Crops Research Institute. Bogor. p. 17.