The Journal of Public Health and Diseases (JPHD) consider all manuscripts on the strict condition that they have been submitted only to JPHD and that they have not been published already or under consideration for publication or in press elsewhere. All manuscripts must be clearly written in English. It is recommended that an English check of the manuscript by a competent and knowledgeable native speaker be completed before submission. Only manuscripts that are written in clear and concise English will be accepted for review. Manuscripts should be prepared in Microsoft Word with 1.5 Line Spacing using Arial or Times New Roman font type and font size 12.
These are complete descriptions of current original research findings, and experimental procedures should be given in sufficient detail for others to verify the work. The length of a full paper should be between five and twenty pages.
Short communications are concise articles, but independent report suitable for recording the results of complete small investigations. They aim to report new ideas and recent advancement in a particular field. Short communications do not cover in detail background information about the problems treated or the applications, rather they provide key pointers to the reader. The work reported needs to be technically sound, innovative and significantly unique. The style of main sections need not conform to that of full-length papers. Short communications are 2 to 3 printed pages (6-8 double spaced pages) in length.
Review articles do not cover original research but rather accumulate the results of various articles on a particular subject into a coherent narrative about the state of the art in that field. Review articles will often lack a “Materials and Methods” section. They provide information about the topic and also provide journal references to the original research.
Case Reports are detailed report of the symptoms, signs, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of an individual patient. It may contain a demographic profile of the patient, but usually describe an unusual or novel occurrence.
Apart from the major article types listed above, other form of articles such as Editorial, Perspective, Commentary are also accepted for publication in Journal of Public Health and Diseases.
ETHICS IN HEALTH RESEARCH
The Journal of Public Health and Diseases encourages authors to follow appropriate ethical guidelines when preparing manuscripts that involve human and animal subjects.
Manuscripts must be submitted with a full title of not more than 250 characters. It should be specific, descriptive, concise, and comprehensible to readers outside the subject field. Avoid abbreviations if possible. Where appropriate, authors should include the species or model system used (for biological papers) or type of study design (for clinical papers).
Authors and Affiliations
All authors’ names should be listed in the following order:
First names (or initials),
Middle names (or initials), and
Last names (surname, family name)
Each author should list an associated department, university, or organizational affiliation and its location, including city, state/province (if applicable), and country. If the article has been submitted on behalf of a consortium, all author names and affiliations should be listed at the end of the article. The correctness of the authors name and affiliation is of great importance as this may not be changed after initial submission unless under strict and special consideration. To qualify for authorship, one should contribute to all of the following:
Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND
Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND
Final approval of the version to be published; AND
Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
All persons designated as authors should qualify for authorship, and all those who qualify should be listed. Each author must have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content. Those who contributed to the work but do not qualify for authorship should be listed in the acknowledgments. When a large group or center has conducted the work, the author list should include the individuals whose contributions meet the criteria defined above, as well as the group name. All authors must approve the final manuscript before submission. An approval letter or cover letter stating that all authors approve the submission should be sent along when submitting the manuscript. One author should be designated as the corresponding author, and his or her email address and other contact information should be included on the manuscript cover page. This information will be published with the article if accepted.
The abstract should:
Describe the main objective(s) of the study
Explain how the study was done, including any model organisms used, without methodological detail
Summarize the most important results and their significance
Be one paragraph
Not exceed 300 words
Not include citation
Not include Abbreviations, if possible
Immediately after the abstract, about 4-7 key words should be provided, which will be used for indexing purposes. Key words should be separated by commas and if possible, words from title should not be repeated as key words.
Abbreviations that are non-standard should be clearly defined in this field to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations must be defined at their first mention. Consistency of abbreviations should be ensured throughout the article. Footnotes and Endnotes should be properly numbered to ensure uniformity.
The introduction should:
Provide background that puts the manuscript into context and allows readers outside the field to understand the purpose and significance of the study.
Define the problem addressed and why it is important.
Include a brief review of the key literature.
Note any relevant controversies or disagreements in the field.
Conclude with a brief statement of the overall aim of the work and a comment about whether that aim was achieved.
Materials and Methods
This section should be clearly presented to allow the reproduction of the experiments. Information/protocols for new methods should be included in detail and relevant literatures to support the study should be cited. Only new techniques and modifications to known methods need to be described in detail. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference. Appropriate statistical methods should be used and indicate the probability level (p) at which differences were considered significant. However, a review article may necessarily not contain this section. For clinical studies, authors should upload the detailed plan of their study that was approved by the ethics committee as supplementary materials.
Results, Discussion, and Conclusions
These sections maybe combined into a single section as “Results and discussion” or “Discussion” depending on the article type. It may also be presented separately as Results, Discussion and Conclusion if necessary. These sections may be further divided into subsections, each with a concise subheading. These sections should describe the results of the experiments, the interpretation of these results, and the conclusions that can be drawn. In this section(s), author should compare the findings/results of their study with that of the previous similar studies, in doing so, references should be cited.
Acknowledgement should be brief and concise. People who contributed to the work but do not fit the authorship criteria should be listed in the acknowledgments, along with their contributions. Funding sources can also be acknowledged in this section.
References should be listed in an alphabetical order at the end of the paper. Appropriate links to the referenced articles should be included wherever available. Authors should ensure that at least 30% of the cited references are within the last 5 years. The following general guidelines should be strictly adhered to by the authors.
All cited references should be listed in the reference list.
An unpublished work that has been accepted in a reputable journal can be cited.
For review article, author must cite his or her previous work in the related field.
Too many self-citations are not allowed.
Numbered references are not allowed.
Unavailable and unpublished work not yet accepted should not be cited.
All listed references should be formatted in APA citation style. See the Examples below:
[Author (1), author (2)., & author (3)]. [(year)]. [Title of the article]. [name of journal] [volume no (Issue no), page no (from x1-to x8)].
Shetty, K., Asano, Y., & Oosawa, K. (1992). Stimulation of in vitro shoot organogenesis in Glycine max (Merrill.) by allantoin and amides. Plant Science, 81(2), 245-251.
[Author (1), author (2)., & author (3)]. [year]. [Title of the book]. [Name of the publisher], [Edition]. [page no from x1-to x8].
Darwin, C. R. (1868). The variation of animals and plants under domestication. John Murray, London. Pp. 4-8.
In-text Reference Citations
Use the author/date system of references. In the text, refer to the author(s) name (without initials) and year of publication:
Examples for a single author: Johnson (2004) has shown that ... This is in agreement with results obtained by several authors (Scholes, 1995; Alex, 1997; Nelson, 1998).
Examples for two authors: Smith and Giggs (2000) reported that... This was later found to be incorrect (Khan and Rahman, 2002).
Examples for three or more authors (use the first author’s name and then et al.): Samule et al. (1999) stated that... Similar results were reported recently (Smith et al., 2003).
Figures and Tables
Figures and Tables should be provided in a separate file or at the end of the Text.
Figures/Graphics should be clear and prepared in GIF, TIFF, JPEG or PowerPoint. Figures should have a short descriptive legend that allows readers to understand the figure without referring to the text. All non-standard symbols and abbreviations should be defined. For graphics, the unit in the two axes should be clearly indicated. Figures should be numbered consecutively and cited appropriately in the manuscript.
Tables should be kept to a minimum. All tables should have a concise title. Footnotes can be used to explain abbreviations if necessary but not compulsory for all tables. The unit of measurement used in a table should be stated. Tables should be numbered consecutively and cited appropriately in the manuscript. Citations in the table should be indicated using the same style as the one in the text. Tables should be organized in Microsoft Word or Excel spreadsheet.
It is used to provide readers with numerical examples or give extensive detail of analytical procedure.
Equations and Symbols
Special characters (e.g, Greek and symbols) should be inserted using the symbols palette available in MS-Word. Complex equations should be entered using Math -Type or an equation editor. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text.
Give the scientific names (with authority) for plants, animals, microorganisms, with generic names in full at the first mention, e.g. Escherichia coli. Thereafter, abbreviate them in the text, e.g. E coli; give them in full (without authority) in the headings of sections, tables, figures and key words. Where appropriate, cultivars should be specified and should be in italics.