JOURNAL OF BIOSCIENCE AND BIOTECHNOLOGY DISCOVERY
Integrity Research Journals

ISSN: 2536-7064
Model: Open Access/Peer Reviewed
DOI: 10.31248/JBBD
Start Year: 2016
Email: jbbd@integrityresjournals.org


Microbiological quality and HACCP of nono production in a Fulani settlement, Zaria Kaduna state, Nigeria

https://doi.org/10.31248/JBBD2020.128   |   Article Number: 38C6D2AC2   |   Vol.5 (2) - June 2020

Received Date: 02 June 2020   |   Accepted Date: 29 June 2020  |   Published Date: 30 June 2020

Authors:  S. Bello* , V. J. Umoh , M. Galadima and S. S. D. Mohammed

Keywords: E.coli, B. cereus, control measures, Fulani settlement, hazard analysis, nono, yeasts and moulds.

This research studied the frequency of occurrence of Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, yeasts and moulds in some retail uncontrolled fermented milk samples (nono), and a hazard analysis was conducted to trace the sources of contamination during processing and suggest critical control measures. Fifty (50) nono samples purchased from Fulani milkmaids in Samaru market of Zaria town, Kaduna, Nigeria, were analyzed for presence of E. coli, B. cereus, Yeasts and Moulds. The traditional processing of nono by 3 producers of some of the market samples analyzed was studied by observing processing steps, processing environment, collecting raw and fermented milk samples, cow dung, hand swabs, swabs of milk contact surfaces, and exposing sterile plates to milking environment. Nono processing for all 3 producers involved spontaneous fermentation of fresh unpasteurized milk in calabashes at ambient temperature (25±40C) for 24 hours, fat separation from fermented milk, addition of water, whisking, packaging in calabashes and storing at ambient temperature before sale. Mean plate counts of market nono samples were at levels considered unsatisfactory for E. coli (≥ 102) in 76 %of samples, potentially hazardous for B. cereus (≥104) in 78% of samples and exceeded satisfactory limits for yeasts and moulds (<10) in all samples (100%). E. coli, B. cereus, yeasts and moulds were present in all 9 milk samples collected before and after fermentation during traditional processing. Yeasts and moulds were isolated from all samples (100%) during traditional processing except for wooden spoons (78%) and hand swabs (78%). Substandard practices like using unclean hands in manual milking and use of unpasteurized milk observed during traditional processing could explain presence of these microorganisms in market samples, as was also detected in raw and fermented milk during traditional processing. Findings of this study support that of previous researchers which established the impact of substandard processing techniques and hygiene on food quality.

Abd El-Razik, M. M., Hassan, M. F., & Gadallah, M. G. (2016). Implementation of HACCP plan for the production of Egyptian kishk (a traditional fermented cereal-milk mixture). Food and Nutrition Sciences, 7(13), 1262-1275.
Crossref
 
Adams, M. R., & Moss, M. O. (1999). Food Microbiology. Royal Society of Chemistry Cambridge, UK. P. 265.
 
Akabanda, F., Owusu-Kwarteng, J. R. L. K., Glover, R. L. K., & Tano-Debrah, K. (2010). Microbiological characteristics of Ghanaian traditional fermented milk product, Nunu. Nature and Science, 8(9), 178-187.
 
Barnett, J. A., Payne, R. W., & Yarrow, D. (1983). Yeasts: characteristics and identification. Cambridge university press. Pp. 19-28.
 
Bello, S., Whong, C. M. Z. & Abdullahi, I. O. (2014). Prevalence of B. cereus in uncontrolled fermented cow milk and the influence of pH and temperature on its survival during storage. The International Journal of Engineering and Science, 3(12), 51-56.
 
Bryan, F. L. (1988). Risks of practices, procedures and processes that lead to outbreaks of foodborne diseases. Journal of Food Protection, 51(8), 663-673.
Crossref
 
Bryan, F. L. (1992). Hazard analysis critical control point evaluations. A guide to identifying hazards and assessing risks associated with food preparation and storage. World Health Organization, Geneva. p. 3.
 
Capozzi, V., Fragasso, M., Romaniello, R., Berbegal, C., Russo, P., & Spano, G. (2017). Spontaneous food fermentations and potential risks for human health. Fermentation, 3(4), 19p.
Crossref
 
Centre for Food Safety (CFS) (2017). Seven principles of hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) system.
Link
 
Davey, G. P. (1985). Food poisoning in New south Wales: 1977-1984. Food Technology, 37, 453-456
 
De Angelis, M., Campanella, D., Cosmai, L., Summo, C., Rizzello, C. G., & Caponio, F. (2015). Microbiota and metabolome of un-started and started Greek-type fermentation of Bella di Cerignola table olives. Food Microbiology, 52, 18-30.
Crossref
 
Duguid, J. P., Marmion, B. P., & Swain, R. H. A. (1984). Mackie and Mc Cartney Medical Microbiology. A guide to the Laboratory Diagnosis and Control of Infection. 13th edition, Volume 1: Microbial Infections. Churchill Livingstone Inc. New York. p. 641.
 
Egwim, E., Amanabo, M., Yahaya, A., & Bello, M. (2013). Nigerian indigenous fermented foods: processes and prospects. Mycotoxin and food safety in developing countries. IntechOpen Science. Pp. 153-180.
 
Emmanuel, S. D., Adamu, I. K., Ejila, A., Yabaya A., Ja'afaru, M. I., Bobai, M., & Blessing, Y. (2014). Quality assessment and occurrence of bacterial pathogens in locally available Fulani nono (milk), fermented yoghurt and their effect to humans. A case study of Samaru Zaria. International Journal of Current Research, 6(8), 8179-8185.
 
Food and Agricultural organization (FAO) (1979). Manuals of food quality control: A microbiological analysis. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Italy. Pp. 10-17.
 
Food Standards Agency (2016). Milk hygiene on the dairy farm.
Link
 
Holt, J. G. (1994). Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology (9th edition). Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MA.
 
International Dairy Foundation/Food and Agricultural Organization (IDF/FAO) (2004). Guide to good dairy farming practice. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome and International Dairy Federation, Brussels.
 
Ladan, M. S., & Abiodun, A. A. (1990). Characteristics of strains of E. coli isolated from locally fermented milk (nono) in Zaria, Nigeria. Journal of Food Protection, 53(7), 574-576.
Crossref
 
Lin, S., Schraft, H., Odumeru, J., & Mansel, G. (1998). Identification of contamination sources of Bacillus cereus in pasteurized milk. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 43(3), 159-571.
Crossref
 
Maikai, B. V., & Madaki, P. D. (2018). Enumeration of coliforms in fermented milk product (nono) sold in Samaru, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 16(4), 50-57.
Crossref
 
Marco Maria, L., Heeney, D., Binda, S., Cifelli Christopher, J., D Paul, C., Foligne, B., Ganzle, M., Kort, R., Pasin, G., Pihlanto, A., & Smid Eddy, J. (2017). Health benefits of fermented foods: microbiota and beyond. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 44, 94-102.
Crossref
 
Mats, P., Wiberg, C., & Norberg, P. (1985). A research note; comparison of media for the isolation of Bacillus cereus from foods. Journal of Food Protection, 48,969-970.
Crossref
 
Mohammed, A. S., & Abdullahi, M. (2013). Comparative study of microbial quality of hawked nono and packaged yogurt sold in Bida metropolis. Specialty Journal of Psychology and Management, 1(0),1-4.
 
Mossel, D. A. A., Corry, J. E. L., Struijk, C. B., & Baird, R. M. (1995). Essentials of the microbiology of foods: A textbook for advanced studies. John Wiley and Sons, England, Pp. 76-77.
 
Norrung, J., Anderson, K., and Buncic, S. (2009). Main concerns of pathogenic microorganisms in meat. In: Toldra, F. (ed.). Safety of meat and processed meat (pp. 3-29), Springer, New York, NY, USA.
Crossref
 
NSW Food Authority (New South Wales) (2009). Microbiological quality guide for ready-to-eat food. A guide to interpreting microbiological result.
Link
 
Okeke, O. F. I., & Okwori, A. E. J. (2011). Occurrence of pathogenic yersinia species in locally fermented cow milk (nono) in Jos, nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology, 23, 45-52.
 
Okonkwo, O. I. (2011). Microbiological analyses and safety evaluation of nono: A fermented milk product consumed in most parts of northern Nigeria. International Journal of Dairy Science, 6(3), 181-189.
Crossref
 
Omotosho, A. O., Abdullahi, I. O., & Damisa, D. (2013). Microbiological quality and HACCP concept in the production of nono in a farm settlement in Minna, Niger state, Nigeria. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 7(25), 3234-3239.
Crossref
 
Préstamo, G., Pedrazuela, A., Guignon, B., & Sanz, P. D. (2007). Synergy between high-pressure, temperature and ascorbic acid on the inactivation of Bacillus cereus. European Food Research and Technology, 225, Article number 693.
Crossref
 
Rawat, S. (2015). food Spoilage: Microorganisms and their prevention. Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research, 5(4), 47-56.
 
Rivituso, C. P., & Snyder, O. P. (1981). Bacterial growth at foodservice operating temperatures. Journal of Food Protection, 44(10), 770-775.
Crossref
 
Sfakianakis, P., & Tzia, C. (2014). Conventional and innovative Processing of milk for yoghurt manufacture: development of texture and flavor: A Review. Foods, 3(1), 176-193.
Crossref
 
Shehu, L. M., & Adesiyun, A. A. (1990). Characteristics of strains of Escherichia coli isolated from locally-fermented milk (nono) in Zaria, Nigeria. Journal of food protection, 53(7), 574-576.
Crossref
 
Wogu, D., Omoruyi, M. I., Odeh, H. O., & Guobadia, J. N. (2011). Microbial load in ready-to-eat rice sold in Benin City. Journal of Microbiology and Antimicrobials, 3(2), 29-33.
 
Zwietering, M. H., De Koos, J. T., Hasenack, B. E., De Witt, J. C., & Van't Riet, K. (1991). Modeling of bacterial growth as a function of temperature. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 57(4), 1094-110.
Crossref