Integrity Research Journals

ISSN: 2536-7064
Model: Open Access/Peer Reviewed
DOI: 10.31248/JBBD
Start Year: 2016

African black velvet tamarind (Dialium guineense) as a green adsorbent for groundwater remediation   |   Article Number: 32D3745E1   |   Vol.4 (6) - December 2019

Received Date: 03 May 2019   |   Accepted Date: 08 October 2019  |   Published Date: 30 December 2019

Authors:  S. O. Onyia , T. O. Uchechukwu* and O. Ogbobe

Keywords: Heavy metals, Black velvet tamarind, decontamination, Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy

Process shells of black velvet tamarind fruits was investigated as an adsorbent for the potential removal of the pollutant heavy metal ions of Fe, Cr, Pb, Mn and Zn in well water samples collected from six different locations in Enugu Metropolis, Eastern Nigeria. Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy absorption bands characteristic of stretching, scissoring and bending vibrations of - O-H groups of alcohols (R-OH) and phenols (Ph-OH), Sp3 (–C-H) of an oxygen bonded carbon atom, –C-O-C- bond and  Sp2 (---C==C—H) carbons in a ring structure were seen between 3400 to 3200 cm-1, 1438 to 1371 cm-1, 2922/2851 cm-1 and 1155/1028 cm-1 as well as the 1509 cm-1 in the infra-red region of the electromagnetic spectrum in the infra-red absorption spectrum of processed black velvet tamarind fruit shells. Metal ion analysis was carried out by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The results showed that the adsorbent removed 40.50 to 63.30, 33.33 to 52.63, 26.23 to 48.05 and 15.00 to 37.84% respectively of Fe, Zn, Cr and Mn in the well water samples but was ineffective in removing Pb. This demonstrates the usefulness of black velvet tamarind fruit shells in decontaminating heavy metal burdened water and suggests that the technique has potential to reclaim polluted water of such nature, ameliorate the problems of insufficient potable water and waste disposal as well as protect the environment from heavy metal pollution.

Abasi, C. Y., Abia, A. A., & Igwe, J. C. (2011). Adsorption of iron (III), lead (II) and cadmium (II) ions by unmodified Raphia palm (Raphia hookeri) fruit endocarp. Environmental Research Journal, 5(3), 104 -113.
Abetz, L., Baladi, J. F., Jones, P., & Rofail, D. (2006). The impact of iron overload and its treatment on quality of life: results from a literature review. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 4, 73.
Abiodun, A. A., & Ogugua, C. A. (2012). A comparative evaluation of the chemical properties of wild Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) fruits in Nigeria. Food, 6(1), 49-57.
Abiodun, O. A., Dauda, A. O., Adebisi, T. T., & Alonge, C. D. (2017). Physico-chemical, microbial and sensory properties of Kunu zaki beverage sweetened with black velvet tamarind (Dialium guineense). Croatian Journal of Food Science and Technology, 9(1), 46-56.
Adamu, H. M., Ushie, O. A., & Garba, L. (2015). Determination of proximate composition, ascorbic acid and heavy metals content in Dialium guineense. ARC Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1(2), 11-15.
Ademiluyi, F. T., & Ujile, A. A. (2013). Kinetics of batch adsorption of iron (II) ions from aqueous solution using activated carbon from Nigerian bamboo. International Journal of Engineering and Technology, 3(6), 623-631.
Adie, D. B., Okuofu, C. A., & Osakwe, C. (2012). Comparative analysis of the adsorption of heavy metals in wastewater using Borrassus aethiopium and Cocos nucifera. International Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 2(7), 314-322.
Afolabi, O. B., Oloyede, O. I., Obajuluwa, A. I., Adewale, O. B., Olayide, I. I., Balogun, B. D., Fadugba, A., Obafemi, T. O., & Awe, O. J., Adewumi, F. (2018). Evaluation of antioxidant potentials of different solvent-fractions of Dialium indium (African black velvet tamarind) fruit pulp - in vitro. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, 12(1), 70-78.
Ahalya, N., Kanamadi, R. D., & Ramachandra, T. V. (2008). Biosorption of chromium (VI) by Tamarindus indica pod shells. Journal of Environmental Science Research International, 1(2), 77-81.
Ajiboye, A. E., & Sani, A. (2015). Fermentation of the fruit pulp of Dialium guineense (Velvet tamarind) for citric acid production using naturally occurring fungi. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 4(7), 432-440.
Akinola, O. O. (2014). Access to potable water in Ikeji Arakeji: it's impact on human health. International Journal of Physical and Human Geography, 2(1), 37-43.
Anusi, M. O., Umenweke, G. C., Oyoh, K. B., Nkuzinna, O. & Njoku. C. N. (2018). Characterization of non-edible plants for biodiesel production. American Journal of Engineering Research, 7(4), 32-36.
Argun, M. E., & Dursun, S. (2006). Removal of heavy metal ions using chemically modified adsorbents. Journal of International Environmental Application and Science, 1(1-2), 27-40.
Asoiro, F. U., Ezeoha, S. L., Ezenne, G. I. & Ugwu, C. B. (2017). Chemical and mechanical properties of velvet tamarind fruit (dialium guineense). Nigerian Journal of Technology, 36 (1), 252-260.
Babarinde, A., & Onyiaocha, G. O. (2016). Equilibrium sorption of divalent metal ions onto groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) shell: kinetics, isotherm and thermodynamics. Chemistry International, 2(1), 37-46.
Balaji, R., Sasikala, S. & Muthuraman, G. (2014). Removal of iron from drinking/ground water by using agricultural wastes as natural adsorbents. International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology, 3(12), 43-46.
Barbalace, K. (2018). Periodic table of elements-sorted by ionic radius. Environmental
Bello, O. S., Adegoke, K. A., Bello, O. U. & Lateef, I. O. (2014). Sequestering nickel (II) ions from aqueous solutions using various adsorbents: a review. Pakistan Journal of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry, 15(1), 1-17.
Besong, E. E., Balogun, M. E., Djobissie, S. F. A., Obu, D. C., & Obimma, J. N. (2016). Medicinal and economic value of Dialium guineense. African Journal of Biomedical Research, 19(3), 163-170.
Chen, S., Yue, Q., Gao, B., Li, Q., & Xu, X. (2011). Preparation and characteristics of anion exchanger from corn stalks. Desalination, 274(1-3), 113-119.
Cobbina, S., Duwiejuah, A., Quansah, R., Obiri, S., & Bakobie, N. (2015). Comparative assessment of heavy metals in drinking water sources in two small-scale mining communities in northern Ghana. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12(9), 10620-10634.
Crini, G. (2005). Recent developments in polysaccharide-based materials used as adsorbents in wastewater treatment. Progress in polymer science, 30(1), 38-70.
Darbari, D. S., Kple‐Faget, P., Kwagyan, J., Rana, S., Gordeuk, V. R., & Castro, O. (2006). Circumstances of death in adult sickle cell disease patients. American Journal of Hematology, 81(11), 858-863.
Duruibe, J. O., Ogwuegbu, M. O. C., & Egwurugwu, J. N. (2007). Heavy metal pollution and human biotoxic effects. International Journal of Physical Sciences, 2(5), 112-118.
Earthlearningidea Retrieved from
Elaigwu, S. E., Usman, L. A., Awolola, G. V., Adebayo, G.B., & Ajayi, R. M. K. (2009). Adsorption of Pb (II) from aqueous solution by activated carbon prepared from cow dung. Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, 3(3), 442-446.
Ewansiha, C. J., Ekebafe, L. O., Ehigie, C., Ezomosogie, P. P., & Jatto, O. E. (2013). Treatment of palm oil mill effluent using modified powdered cherry (Chrysophyllum albidium) seed shell carbon. International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 2(3), 94-97.
Ewédjè, E. B. K., & Tandjiékpon, A. (2011). Dialium guineense, velvet tamarind. Conservation and sustainable use of genetic resources of priority food tree species in sub-saharan Africa. Bioversity International. Pp. 1-8.
Eze, E. M., Orjiakor, P. I., Okolo, J. C., & Ogu, G. I. (2018). In vitro antibacterial efficacy of velvet tamarind (Dialium guineense wild) root extract. International Journal of Advanced Academic Research, Sciences, Technology and Engineering, 4(3), 45-58.
Fogden, J. (2009). Access to safe drinking water and its impact on global economic growth. Halo Source Inc, Bothell, USA. Pp. 9-10.
Food Safety Authority of Ireland (1999). Mercury, Lead, Cadmium, Tin and Arsenic in food. Toxicology Factsheet Series, 1, 1-13.
Galadima, A., & Garba, Z. N. (2012). Heavy metals pollution in Nigeria: causes and consequences. Elixir Pollution, 45(1), 7917-7922.
Galadima, A., Garba, Z. N., Leke, L., Al-Mustapha, M. N. & Adam, I. K. (2011). Domestic water pollution among local communities in Nigeria --causes and consequences. European Journal of Scientific Research, 52(4), 592-603.
Gimba, C. E., Ndukwe, G. I., Paul, E. D., Habila, J. D., & Madaki, L. A. (2015). Heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) assessment of groundwater in Kaltungo LGA, Gombe State, Nigeria. International Journal of Science and Technology, 4(2), 49-56.
Goyal, M. (2015). A sustainable and economical approach to water treatment: A review in context of India. Science Reviews and Chemical Communication, 5(1), 29-42.
Guo, H., Zhanga, S., Kou, Z., Zhaib, S., & Yang, W. (2015). Removal of cadmium (II) from aqueous solutions by chemically modified maize straw. Carbohydrate Polymers, 115, 177-185.
Gupta, S., & Babu, B. V. (2009). Utilization of waste product (tamarind seeds) for the removal of Cr (VI) from aqueous solutions: equilibrium, kinetics, and regeneration studies. Journal of Environmental Management, 90(10), 3013-3022.
Haftu, G. A., Asnake, G. E., & Abiyu, K. B. (2014). Adsorptive removal of Pb (II) and Cr (VI) from wastewater using acid untreated and acid treated coffee husks: comparative study. International Journal of Research in Chemistry and Environment, 4(3), 26-31.
Horsfall, M. Jnr, Abia, A. A. & Spiff, A.I. (2003). Removal of Cu (II) and Zn (II) ions from wastewater by cassava (Manihot esculenta cranz) waste biomass. African Journal of Biotechnology, 2(10), 360-364.
Ibeto, C. N., & Okoye, C. O. B. (2010). High levels of heavy metals in blood of urban population in Nigeria. Research Journal of Environmental Sciences, 4(4), 371-382.
Jadia, C. D., & Fulekar, M. H. (2009). Phytoremediation of heavy metals: recent techniques. African Journal of Biotechnology, 8(6), 921-928.
Jaishankar, M., Mathew, B. B., Moshami, S, S., Krishna, T. P. M., & Sangeetha, K. R. G. (2014). Biosorption of few heavy metal ions using agricultural wastes. Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health, 2(1), 1-6.
Järup, L. (2003). Hazards of heavy metal contamination. British Medical Bulletin, 68, 167-182.
Jorgetto, A. O., Silva, R. I. V., Saeki, M. J., Barbosa, R. C., Martines, M. A. U., Jorge, S. M. A, Silva, A. C. P., Schneider, J. F., & Castro, G. R. (2014). Cassava root husks powder as green adsorbent for the removal of Cu (II) from natural river water. Applied Surface Science, 288, 356-362.
Kumar, U. (2006). Agricultural products and by-products as a low-cost adsorbent for heavy metal removal from water and wastewater: a review. Scientific Research and Essay, 1(2), 33-37.
Lead Action News (2009). Iron nutrition and lead toxicity. The Journal of the Lead, 9(3), 1-16.
Maigari, A. U., Ekanem, E. O., Garba, I. H., Harami, A., & Akan, J. C. (2016). Health risk assessment for exposure to some selected heavy metals via drinking water from Dadinkowa dam and River Gombe Abba in Gombe State, Northeast Nigeria. World Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 4(1), 1-5.
Meyer, R. A. (2000). Encyclopedia of analytical chemistry, interpretation of infrared spectra, a practical approach. In: John Coates (ed.). John Wiley and Sons. Pp. 10815-10837.
Mostafa, K. M., Samarkandy, A. R., & El-Sanabary, A. A. (2012). Harnessing of chemically modified rice straw plant waste as unique adsorbent for reducing organic and inorganic pollutants. International Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2(2), 143-151.
Nada, A. M. A., Hamed, S. S., Soliman, S. I., & Abd El-Mongy, S. (2005). Spectroscopic and ion exchange studies on modified cotton linters. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 64, 1003-1009.
Nguyen, P. M. (2015). Different factors affecting to tamarind beverage production. Bulletin of Environment, Pharmacology and Life Sciences, 4(7), 36-40.
O'Connel, D. W., Birkinshaw, C., & O'Dwyer, T. F. (2008). Heavy metal adsorbents prepared from the modification of cellulose: a review. Bioresource Technology, 99(15), 6709-6724.
Obasi, N. E., Okorocha, C., & Orisakwe, O. F. (2013). Production and evaluation of velvet tamarind (dialium guineese wild) candy. European Journal of Food Science and Technology. 1(1), 1-8.
Ogali, R. E., Akaranta, O. &Aririguzo, V. O. (2008). Removal of some metal ions from aqueous solution using orange mesocarp. African Journal of Biotechnology, 7(17), 3073-3076.
Ogungbenle, H. N. (2014). Sugar, physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of velvet tamarind (Dialium guineense) pulp and oil. European Journal of Biotechnology and Bioscience, 2(3), 33-37.
Ogungbenle, H. N., & Ebadan, P. (2014). Nutritional qualities and amino acid profile of velvet tamarind (dalium guineense) pulp. British Biomedical Bulletin. 2(1), 006-016.
Okudu, H. O., Umoh, E. J., Ojinnaka, M. C. & Chianakwalam, O. F. (2017). Nutritional, functional and sensory attributes of jam from velvet tamarind pulp. African Journal of Food Science. 11(2), 44-49.
Oliveira, I. M, Cruz, V., Visconte, L. L. Y., & Dezotti, M. (2013). Tannin treated water for use in the emulsion polymerization of SBR. Polímeros, 23(3), 326-330.
Onwuka, G. I., & Nwokorie, S. O. (2006). Comparative studies on the winning potentials of black velvet tamarind, local grape and exotic apple. Journal of Food Technology, 4(4), 350-353.
Orwa, C., Mutua, A., Kindt, R., Jamnadass, R. & Anthony, S. (2009). Agroforestree database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0. Pp. 4-5.
Osanaiye, F. G., Alabi, M. A., Sunday, R. M., Olowokere, T., Salami, E. T., Otunla, T. A., & Odiaka, S. C. (2013). Proximate Composition of whole seeds and pulp of African black velvet tamarind (dialium guineense). International Organization of Science and Research Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science. 5(3), 49-52.
Osarolube, E., & James. A. O. (2016). Assessment of the inhibitive action of velvet tamarind on low carbon steel corrosion in acetic acid. The International Journal of Science and Technoledge, 4(5), 160-165.
Pandey, G. (2013). Overviews on diversity of fish. Research Journal of Animal, Veterinary and Fishery Science, 1(8), 12-18.
Pandharipande, S. L., & Kalnake, R. P. (2013). Tamarind fruit shell adsorbent synthesis, characterization and adsorption studies for removal of Cr (VI) and Ni (II) ions from aqueous solution. International Journal of Engineering Sciences and Emerging Technologies, 4(2), 83-89.
Patil, A., Hatch, G., Michaud, C., Brotman, M., Regunathan, P., Tallon, P. E. R., Andrew, R., Murphy, S., VerStrat, S., Undesser, P., & Redden, K. (2013). Ion exchange, WQA technical fact sheet. Water Quality Association.
Popuri, S. R., Jammala, A., Reddy, K. V. N. S., & Abburi, K. (2007). Biosorption of hexavalent chromium using tamarind (tamarindus indica) fruit shell-a comparative study. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, 10(3), 358-367.
Porter, J. (2005). Pathophysiology of iron overload. Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America, 19(1), 7-12.
Reis, L. S., Pardo, P. E, Camargos, A. S., & Oba, E. (2010). Mineral element and heavy metal poisoning in animals. Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, 1(12), 560-579.
Saka, C., Şahin, Ö., & Küçük, M. M. (2012). Applications on agricultural and forest waste adsorbents for the removal of lead (II) from contaminated waters. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 9(2), 379-394.
Sardar, K., Ali, S., Hameed, S., Afzal, S., Samar, F., Shakoor, M. B., Bharwana, S. A., & Tauqeer, H. M. (2013). Heavy metals contamination and what are the impacts on living organisms. Greener Journal of Environmental Management and Safety, 2(4), 172-179.
Şengil, İ. A., & Özacar, M. (2009). Competitive biosorption of Pb2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions from aqueous solutions onto valonia tannin resin. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 166(2-3), 1488-1494.
Sharma, P., & Singh, A. V. (2005). Synthesis of a tamarind iminodiacetic acid (TIDAA) cation exchanger and its application in metal ion removal from Agucha open cast mine water, Bhilwara (Rajasthan), India. Desalination, 186(1-3), 21-27.
Sharma, R. K., Agrawal, M., & Marshall, F. M. (2009). Heavy metals in vegetables collected from production and market sites of a tropical urban area of India. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 47(3), 583-591.
Shen, S. R., Zhao, Y. F., & Zhao, B. L. (1997). Inhibiting effect of catechins to free radicals at the presence of iron ion. Journal of Tea Science, 17, 119-123.
Shirkhanloo, H., Mirzahosseini, S. A. H., Shirkhanloo, N., Moussavi-Najarkola, S. A., &Farahani, H. (2015). The evaluation and determination of heavy metals pollution in edible vegetables, water and soil in the south of Tehran province by GIS. Archives of Environmental Protection, 41(2), 64-74.
Singh, A. V., & Kumawat, I. K. (2012). Preparation and characterisation of tamarind 4 hydroxybenzoic acid (THBA) resin and its use in extraction of heavy metal ions from industrial wastewater. Water South Africa, 38(4), 529-536.
Singh, A. V., Karel, G., & Musyuni, P. (2010). Synthesis, characterization and analytical application of new polysaccharide cation exchanger resin containing methacrylic acid for industrial wastewater treatment. International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology, 1(3), 897-902.
Stein, M. D. (1989). Internal medicine- Diagnosis and therapy, Appleton and Lange Clinical Manual. International (ed.). Prentice- Hull International. Pp. 67-68.
Tansel, B (2008). New technologies for water and wastewater treatment: A Survey of recent patents. Recent Patents on Chemical Engineering, 1(1), 17-26.
Uchechukwu, T. O. (2017). Cation exchange properties of chemically modified peanut (arachis hypogaea L.) testa extract. PhD Thesis. Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry. University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
Uchechukwu, T. O., Akaranta, O., Chukwu, U. J., Okike, N. E., & Abayeh, O. J. (2016). Binding of heavy metal ions in hydrocarbon produced water by phosphorus oxychloride modified peanut (arachis hypogaea l.) testa extract. Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria. 41(2), 123-129.
United Nations Development Programme (2006). Human Development Report. Beyond scarcity: Power, poverty and the global water crisis. 440. HDR06. Downloaded on September, 25th, 2016.
United Nations Environment Programme Global Environment Monitoring System/Water Programme, (2006). Water Quality for Ecosystem and Human Health, 10.
United Nations Environment Programme Joint report (2010). In Corcoran, E., Nellemann, C., Baker, E., Bos, R., Osborn, D., & Savelli, H. (eds). Sick Water? The central role of wastewater management in sustainable development. A Rapid Response Assessment.
Utubaku, A. B., Yakubu, O. E., & Okwara, D. U. (2017). Comparative phytochemical analysis of fermented and unfermented seeds of dialium giuneense. Journal of Traditional Medicine and Clinical Naturopathy, 6(3), 1 -3.
WHO (1993). WHO's drinking water standards 1993. In: WHO's Guidelines for Drinking -water Quality, set up in Geneva, 1993.
Xu, L., & Zhuang, Z. (2014). Removal of cadmium ions from aqueous solution using chemically modified peanut shell. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 6(6), 649-653.
Yurtsever, M., & Sengil, I. A. (2009). Biosorption of Pb (II) ions by modified quebracho tannin resin. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 163, 58-64.
Zvinowanda, C. M., Okonkwo, J. O., Agyei, N. M., Staden, M. V., Jordaan, W., & Kharebe, B. V. (2010). Recovery of lead (II) from aqueous solutions by zea mays tassel biosorption. American Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 6(1), 1-10.