Received Date: 02 August 2017 | Accepted Date: 12 September 2017 | Published Date: 30 December 2017
Keywords: Broilers, fermented locust bean meal, haematology, production performance, soybean meal.
The high cost of soybean meal, and competition as food between human and animal have necessitated search for alternative plant protein source in poultry diet. Eight weeks trial was carried out on the evaluation of fermented locust bean meal (FLBM) as replacement for soybean meal (SBM) in broiler production. Ninety days old broilers were allotted randomly to three treatment diets, replicated three times with 10 birds per replicate. Diets I (control) did not contain FLBM, diets II and III had 50 and 100% FLBM inclusions respectively as replacement for soybean meal in both starter and finisher phases. At the end of finisher phase, 4 birds were randomly selected per replicate for analyses of blood samples and evaluation of internal organs and carcass characteristics. At starter phase, body weight was not significantly affected (P>0.05) by treatment diets among experimental groups. The feed intake was lower in diet III, and feed conversion ratio was better in diet I significantly (P<0.05). Mortality of birds on diet III was higher significantly (P<0.05). At the finisher level, broilers fed diet I had higher weight gain and better feed conversion ratio, which was significantly (P<0.05) similar to diet II. The packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin, red blood cell and platelets of birds fed diet II were significantly (P<0.05) higher when compared to those fed diets I and III and were within normal range for healthy birds. Blood serum showed that glucose, aspartate transaminase, cholesterol and creatinine of birds fed diet III were significantly (P<0.05) higher than others. Measurement of organs revealed that liver, lungs, intestine, gizzard and heart of those fed diets II and III were significantly (P<0.05) similar and smaller than the control with no traces of inflammation. Conclusively, FLBM could replace up to 50% SBM in broiler diet without adverse effect on the production performance.
|Adenkola. A. Y., Tughgba. T., & Idoga, E. S. (2011). Comparative assessment of erythrocyte osmotic fragility and haematological parameters of broiler and local chicken during the hot-dry season in Makurdi. Nigerian Society of Animal Production (NSAP), Abuja, Nigeria, Pp. 117-119.|
|Aderemi, F., & Alabi, O. (2013). Effect of grade levels of cassava peels fortified with moringa as a replacement to wheat bran on performance, digestibility and blood profile of broilers. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 3(23), 210-215.|
|Alabi, D. A., Akinsulire, O. R., & Sanyaolu, M. A. (2005). Qualitative determination of chemical and nutritional composition of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq) Benth. African Journal of Biotechnology, 4, 812-815.|
|Alabi, O. M., Aderemi, F. A., Ojo, O. J, Ayoola, M. O., Oladejo, O. A., Afolabi, K. D., & Akinoso, S. O. (2016). Antilipaemic effect of Moringa oleifera leaf powder as feed additive on serum cholesterol fractions of broiler finisher. In Proceeding of the 41st Conference of the Nigeria Society for Animal Production (NSAP), 20-24 March, 2016, Pp. 832-836.|
|AOAC (1990). Official Methods of Analysis. 15th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.|
|Apata, D. F. (2003). Egg production and haematological profile of laying hens fed dietary raw or processed proposis African seeds. In proceeding of the 28th Annual Conference of the Nigeria society for Animal production (NSAP), 16th-20th March 2003, Pp. 280-284.|
|Ari, M. M., & Ayanwale, B. A. (2012). Nutrient retention and serum profile of broilers fed fermented African locust beans (Parkia filicooide). Asian Journal of Agricultural Research, 6(3), 129-136.
|Ayanwale, B. A., & Ari, M. M. (2002). Replacement value of Parkia filicoidea in broiler. Journal of Agricultural Technology, 1(2), 42-52.|
|Bridget, O. O., Olumuyiwa, S. F, Bolanie, O. A., & Adewusi, S. A. A. (2004). Biochemical changes in Africa locust beans (Parkia biglobasa) and Melon (Citrullus vulgaris) seeds during fermentation to condiment. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 3(1), 140-145.|
|Campbell-Platt, G. (1980). African locust beans (parkia spp.) West African fermented-food Products daddawa. Ecol. Nutr., 9(3), 123-132.
|Coulibaly, A., Kauakou, B., & Chen, J. (2011). Phytic acid in cereal grains: Structure, healthy or harmful ways to reduce phytic acid in cereal grains and their effect on nutritional quality. American Journal of Plant Nutrition, and Fertilization Technology, 1(2), 1-12.
|Dawodu, F. A. (2009). Physico-chemical studies on oil extraction processes from some Nigerian grown plant seeds. Journal of Environmental Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 8(2), 102-110.|
|Fetuga, B. L., Babatunde, G. M., & Oyenuga, V. A. (1974). Protein quality of some unusual protein foodstuffs:Studies of African locust-bean seed (Parkia filicoidea Welw). British Journal of Nutrition, 32(3), 27-36.
|Gugolek, A., Lorek M. O., Kowalska, D., & Janiszewski, P. (2007). Production results of rabbits fed diets containing no coccidiostat during the fattening period. Journal of central European Agriculture, 8(4), 443-446.|
|Ismail, A., Ikram, E. H. K., & Nazri, H. S. M. (2008). Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa.L) seed nutritional composition, protein quality and health benefits. Food, 2(1), 1-16.|
|Mitruka B. M., & Rawnsley H. M. (1977). In: Clinical biochemical and haematological reference value in normal experimental animals. Masson publishing U.S.A, Inc.|
|National Research Council (NRC) (1985). Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Publication no. 85-23. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.|
|Odunsi, A. A. (2003). Blend of blood and rumen digesta as replacement for fish meal and groundnut cake in layers diet. International Journal of poultry science, 2(1), 68-61|
|Omerovic, I., Milosevic, B., Ciric, S., Spasic, Z., Lalic, N., & Samardzic, S. (2016). Effect of prebiotic on performance and slaughter traits of broiler chickens fed lower protein diets. Journal of Livestock Science, 7(2), 168-171.|
|Soetan, K. O., & Oyewale, O. E. (2009). The need for adequate processing to reduce the anti-nutritional factors in plants used as human foods and animal feeds: A review. African Journal of Food Science, 3(1), 223-232.|
|Sokunbi, O. A., & Egbunike, G. N. (2000). Physiological response and organ weight of young rabbit on neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf meal based diets: haematology and serum biochemistry. Tropical Animal Production, 2(1), 81-87.|
|Tuffery, A. A. (1995). Laboratory Animal in: An introduction for experiments, A. A. Tuffery (ed. John Wiley and Son Ltd. England).|
|Tuleun, C. D., Adenkola, A. Y., & Oluremi, O. I. A. (2009). Performance of characteristics and haematological variables of broilers chickens fed diets containing mucuna seed meal. Tropical Veterinary Journal, 25(2), 74-81.|