Integrity Research Journals

ISSN: 2536-7099
Model: Open Access/Peer Reviewed
DOI: 10.31248/JASVM
Start Year: 2016

Assessment of management practices of Tswana chickens at North East District of Botswana   |   Article Number: 9F50CEFE2   |   Vol.1 (2) - August 2016

Received Date: 30 June 2016   |   Accepted Date: 20 August 2016  |   Published Date: 30 August 2016

Authors:  John Cassius Moreki* , Kuda Nelson and Wame Boitumelo

Keywords: Tswana chickens., meat, indigenous, income, Food security

The objective of this study was to document management practices, economic benefits and challenges in indigenous Tswana chicken production in Jackalas No.2, Moroka and Tsamaya villages of North East District of Botswana. Structured questionnaire, oral interviews and field observations were used in collecting data from 50 farmers from the three villages for six successive weeks (i.e., November to December, 2015). All data generated were subjected to descriptive statistics using frequencies, percentages and means. The obtained results showed that 98%of the poultry rearers were females. Ninety-eight percent (98%) of the farmers keep chickens mainly for meat, while two percent (2%) was for egg consumption. Family chicken production was common in the age group of 21 to 50 years. All the farmers in the study area keepTswana chickens on free-range and grains were provided to supplement what they picked from scavenging. Eighty percent of the farmers in Moroka provide enclosure or confinement at night followed by Jackalas No. 2 (70%) and Tsamaya (55%). Diseases and parasites contribute to losses in chicken production and 96% of the rearers used traditional remedies to treat and control diseases with gonde (Aloe sp.) being the most common plant used. In order to increase the benefits of rearing Tswana chickens, the farmers should be trained in general poultry husbandry management and also be encouraged to form associations to assist them in marketing chickens. The obtained results showed that Tswana chickens play an important role in food security at household level of the rural populace.

Addisu, H., Hailu, M., & Zewdu, W. (2013). Indigenous chicken production system and breeding practice in North Wollo, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Poultry, Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences, 1, 108.
Aganga, A. A., Omphile, U. J., Malope, P., Motsamai, G. M., & Motsumi, L. G. (2000). Traditional poultry production and commercial broiler alternatives for small-holder farmers in Botswana. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 12(4), 1-8.
Alders, R. G. (2004). Poultry for profit and pleasure. Diversification Booklet No.3, Agricultural Support Systems Division. Food and AgricultureOrganization of the United Nations, Rome. Retrieved 5th May, 2016.
Alders, R. G., & Pym, R. A. E. (2009). Village poultry: still important to millions, eight thousand years after domestication. World's Poultry Science Journal, 65, 181-190.
Aromolaran Adetayo, K., Ademiluyi, I. O., & Itebu, O. J. (2013). Challenges of Small Poultry Farms in Layer Production in Ibadan Oyo State Nigeria. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research, 13(2). Retrieved 22 August 2016, from
Ayieko, M. O. D., Bett, E. K., & Kabuage, L. W. (2015). Analysis of indigenous chicken marketing participation decisions: The case of producers from Makueni County, Kenya. East AfricanAgricultural and Forestry Journal, 81(1), 12-17.
Assan, N. (2015). Cushioning women against gender inequality through promoting indigenous chicken production in sub Saharan Africa.Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 4(6), 119-124.
Badhaso, B. (2012). The status of indigenous chicken production marketing system in Ethiopia, Addis Ababa. Retrieved 05th May, 2016, from
Badubi, S. S., Rakereng, M., & Marumo, M. (2006). Morphological characteristics and feed resources available for indigenous chickens in Botswana. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 18(1), 205-211.
Bekele, G., Kebede, K., & Ameha, N. (2016). Study of indigenous chicken production system in Bench Maji Zone, South Western Australia.Global Journal of Science Frontier D Agriculture and Veterinary, 16(2), 21-30.
Central Statistics Office (2011). 2011 Botswana Population and Housing Census. Retrieved 29th June, 2016, from
CTA (2007). Improved practices in rearing indigenous chickens. CTA Practical Guide Series, No. 4. Retrieved 22nd June 2016, from http://publications.cta.imt/media/publications/downloads/1379_ full_text.pdf
Department of Animal Production (2016). Ministry of Agriculture. Gaborone, Botswana.
Department of Veterinary Services (2015). Ministry of Agriculture. Gaborone, Botswana.
Dutta, S., Ray, S., & Nagarajan, K. (2013). Glutamic acid as anticancer agent: An overview. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 21(4), 337-343.
‎Gabanakgosi, K., Moreki, J. C., Tsopito, C. M., & Nsoso, S. J. (2013). Impact of family chickens on the livelihoods of people living with HIV and AIDS in four villages of Botswana. Journal World's Poultry Research, 3(2), 43-53.
Guèye, E. F. (1998). Village egg and fowl meat production in Africa. World's Poultry Science Journal, 54, 73-86.
Guèye, E. F. (2005). Gender aspects in family poultry management systems in developing countries. World's Poultry Science Journal, 61, 39-46.
Kanunnikova, N. P. (2012). Role of brain glutamic acid metabolism changes in neurodegenerative pathologies. Journal of Biology and Earth Sciences, 2(1), M1-M10.
Moreda, E., Harrepal, S., Johansson, A., Sisaye, T., & Sahile, Z. (2013). Characteristics of indigenous chicken production in south west and southern part of Ethiopia.British Poultry Science, 2(3), 25-32.
Moreki, J. C. (1997). Small-scale poultry production systems in Serowe-Palapye sub-district. Master of Applied Science in Agriculture (Doctoral dissertation, Thesis. University of Melbourne, Australia).
Moreki, J. C. (2003). Village poultry and poverty alleviation.In, Community-based managementof animal genetic resources. Proceedings of the workshop heldin Mbabane, Swaziland, 7–11 May 2001.
Moreki, J. C. (2006). Family poultry production.Poultry Today.Ministry of Agriculture, Gaborone, Botswana.
Moreki, J. C. (2010). Village poultry production in Serowe-Palapye sub-district of Botswana. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 22(3).
Moreki, J. C. (2012). Family chickens, poverty alleviation, food security and HIV/AIDS mitigation: The case of BONEPWA+. Journal of AIDS and HIV Research, 4(10), 229-233.
Moreki, J. C., Poroga, B., Dikeme, R., & Seabo, D. (2010). Ethnoveterinary medicine and health management in poultry in Southern and Western Districts, Botswana. Age, 22(6).
Mwale, M., Bhebhe E., Chimoyo, M., & Halimani, T. E. (2005). Use of herbal plants in poultry health management in the Mushagashe small-scale commercial farming area in Zimbabwe. International Journal of Applied Research in Veterinary Medicine, 3(2), 163-170.
Mwale, M., Bhebhe, E., Chimonyo, M., & Halimani, T. E. (2006). The in vitro studies on the effect of Aloe vera ((L) Webb. and Berth.) and Aloe spicata (L.F.) on the control of coccidiosis in chickens. International Journal of Applied Research in Veterinary Medicine, 4(2), 128-133.
Mwobobia, R. M., Kanui, T. I., Amwata, D. A., & Nguku, A. S. (2016). Comparing use of ethnoveterinary products among rural and periurban chicken farmers in Katulani District, Kenya. International Journal of Advanced Research, 4(1), 550-558.
North East District Development Plan 6: 2003-2009. Ministry of Local Government. Gaborone, Botswana. Retrieved 10 August 2016, from
Nyoni, N. M. B., & Masika, P. J. (2012). Village chicken production practices in the Amatola Basin of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 7(17), 2647-2652.
Okitoi, L. O., Ondwasy, H. O., Siamba, D. & Nkurumah, D. (2007). Traditional herbal preparations for indigenous poultry health management in Western Kenya. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 19(5).
Onyango, R., Obara, J. J., & Bebe, O. B. (2016). Influence of common interest group membership on productivity of smallholder indigenous chicken enterprise in Kisumu County. International Journal of Science and Research, 5(2), 810-813.
Padhi, M. K. (2016). Importance of Indigenous Breeds of Chicken for Rural Economy and Their Improvements for Higher Production Performance, Scientifica, vol. 2016, Article ID 2604685, 9 pages, 2016. doi:10.1155/2016/2604685
Simainga, S., Moreki, J. C., Banda, F., & Sakuya, N. (2011). Socio-economic study of family poultry in Mongu and Kalabo Districts of Zambia.Livestock Research for Rural Development, 23(2).
Tan, D. H. Q. (2013). Understanding village poultry through the agricultural household model: a systematic literature review. Second cycle, A2E. Uppsala: SLU, Department of Economics.
Wattanachant, S., Benjakul, S., & Lesward, D. A. (2004). Composition, colour and texture of Thai indigenous and broiler chicken muscles.Poultry Science, 83, 123-128.
Worku, Z., Melesse, A. & T/Giorgis, Y. (2012). Assessment of village chicken production system and the performance of local chicken population in West Amhara Region of Ethiopia.Journal of Animal Production Advances, 2(4), 199-207.