JOURNAL OF BIOSCIENCE AND BIOTECHNOLOGY DISCOVERY
Integrity Research Journals

ISSN: 2536-7064
Model: Open Access/Peer Reviewed
DOI: 10.31248/JBBD
Start Year: 2016
Email: jbbd@integrityresjournals.org


The virucidal potentials of Tapinanthus globiferus: A Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Geartn epiphytes (whole plant) extract in experimental bronchitis in broiler chicken

https://doi.org/10.31248/JBBD2021.155   |   Article Number: 72E5EE312   |   Vol.6 (3) - August 2021

Received Date: 09 August 2021   |   Accepted Date: 26 August 2021  |   Published Date: 30 August 2021

Authors:  Garba, M. H.* , Ampitan, T. A. , Kehinde, M. A. , Tawakaltu, A-A. , Fajobi, E. A. and Jeje, C. A.

Keywords: poultry, Epiphytes, IBV, phytoagents, Tapinanthus globiferus, virucidal, Vitellaria paradoxa.

Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) belongs to the family Coronaviridae; genus Coronavirus, together with turkey coronavirus and nine species of mammalian viruses. The Tapinanthus globiferus: A Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Geartn epiphytes (whole plant) was prepared and cold extracted using 70% methanol. Acute toxicity studies using set of 36 number of four weeks old apparently healthy chickens grouped into six categories (A-F) was performed. Total numbers of 30, four weeks old broiler chickens were grouped into six (I-VI) with each group consisting of five (n = 5) chickens. Infected birds manifesting all the signs and symptoms of infectious bronchitis (IB) and confirmed through alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and creatinine phosphor kinase (CPK) assay was isolated and provided with 300 ml of drinking water over a period of 24 hours. The contaminated water was used as the inoculum. The infection was carried out by administering 3 ml of the infective dose to groups I-IV. The treatment with the extract at doses of 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/bw was given to groups I-IV while groups V and VI were the standard and negative controls respectively. Monitoring of the viral load was done at a week interval through the ALP and CPK enzyme assay. Doses of 1000 to 3000 mg/kgbw did not cause any mortality while LD50 was not found even at the highest dose of 5000 mg/kgbw. The doses of 300 and 400 mg/kgbw were found to maintain a very low viral load. Prophylaxis with 400 mg/kgbw for five consecutive days prior to infection does not show any prophylactic effect. Result from this study reveals that methanol extract of Tapinanthus globiferus: A Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Geartn epiphytes has pharmacological effect against IBV with a very low level of toxicity, though, no prophylactic effect.

Akoma, O. A. Nma, N. Y. Musa, S. A., & Salihu, A. B. (2018). Nutritional and phytochemical composition of Vitellaria paradoxa (shea fruit pulp). International Journal of Biochemistry Research and Review, 22(1), 1-7.
Crossref
 
Arthur, S. A., Dhama, K., Kataria, J. M., Rahul, S., & Mahesh, M. (2005). Avian infectious bronchitis: A review. Indian Journal of Comparative Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 1-14.
 
Cavanagh, D. (1995). Coronaviridae: A family of enveloped, positive-strand RNA viruses which infect amphibians, birds, and mammals. In: Siddell, S.G. (ed.). The Coronaviridae. Plenum Press, New York. p. 73.
 
Cavanagh, D. (2000). Variation in the viral spike protein gives rise to multiple strains of the virus, which may vary regionally. In: Zuckerman, A. Z., Banatvala, J. E., & Pattison, J. R. (eds.). Principles and Practice of Clinical Virology, 4th edition. John Wiley and Sons. Chichester, United Kingdom. p. 345.
 
Cavanagh, D. (2005). Coronaviruses in poultry and other birds. Avian Pathology, 34(6), 439-448.
Crossref
 
Cavanagh, D., & Naqi, S. A. (2003). Viral Diseases of Poultry: The Tip of the Iceberg. In: Calnek, B. W., Barnes, H. J., Beard, C. W., McDougald, L. R., & Saif, Y. M. (eds.). Diseases of Poultry, 11th edition. Ames, IA, Iowa State University Press. p. 101.
 
De Wit, J. J. (2000). Detection of infectious bronchitis virus. Avian Pathology, 29(2), 71-93.
Crossref
 
De Wit, J. J., & Cook, J. K. (2014). Factors influencing the outcome of infectious bronchitis vaccination and challenge experiments. Avian Pathology, 43(6), 485-497.
Crossref
 
European Pharmacopoeia 9th (2017a). Avian infectious bronchitis vaccine (live). European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and HealthCare (EDQM), Council of Europe, Strasbourg, France, 1008-1010.
 
Gandhi, G. R., Barreto, P. G., dos Santos Lima, B., Quintans, J. D. S. S., de Souza Araujo, A. A., Narain, N., Quintans-Junior, L. J. & Gurgel, R. Q. (2016). Medicinal plants and natural molecules with in vitro and in vivo activity against rotavirus: A systematic review. Phytomedicine, 23(14), 1830-1842.
Crossref
 
Garba, M. H., Ampitan, T. A., Halidu, S. K., Omotugba, S. K. Fajobi, E. A., & Jeje, C. A. (2020). Anticoccidial potentials of Cuccumis Metuliferus E. Mey. Ex Naudin methanol extract in experimental broiler chickens Journal of Forestry Research and Management, 17(2).57-67.
 
Garba, M. H., Kabiru, A. Y., Yusuf, A. M., Muhammad, A. H., Lekene, B. J., Kabir, M., & Joseph, A. (2015). In vivo trypanocidal activity of Nymphaea lotus Linn. methanol extract against Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, 5(10), 808-812.
Crossref
 
Jackwood, M. W., & De Wit, J. J. (2013). Infectious bronchitis. In: Swayne, D. E., Glisson, J. R., McDougald, L. R., Nolan, L. K., Suarez, D. L., & Nair, V. (eds.). Diseases of poultry, thirteenth edition. Blackwell Publishing Professional Ames, Iowa, USA. Pp. 117-135.
Crossref
 
Jaime, M. F. V., Redko, F., Muschietti, L. V., Campos, R. H., Martino, V. S., & Cavallaro, L. V. (2013). In vitro antiviral activity of plant extracts from Asteraceae medicinal plants. Virology Journal, 10, Article number 245.
Crossref
 
Jordan, B. (2017). Vaccination against infectious bronchitis virus: a continuous challenge. Veterinary Microbiology, 206, 137-143.
Crossref
 
Kama-Kama, F., Midiwo, J., Nganga, J., Maina, N., Schiek, E., Omosa, L. K., Osanjo, G., & Naessens, J. (2016). Selected ethno-medicinal plants from Kenya with in vitro activity against major African livestock pathogens belonging to the "Mycoplasma mycoides cluster". Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 192, 524-534.
Crossref
 
Lelešius, R., Karpovaitė, A., Mickienė, R., Drevinskas, T., Tiso, N., Ragažinskienė, O., Kubilienė, L., Maruška, A., & Šalomskas, A. (2019). In vitro antiviral activity of fifteen plant extracts against avian infectious bronchitis virus. BMC Veterinary Research, 15, Article number 178.
Crossref
 
Liang, J. Q., Fang, S., Yuan, Q., Huang, M., Chen, R. A., Fung, T. S., & Liu, D. X. (2019). N-Linked glycosylation of the membrane protein ectodomain regulates infectious bronchitis virus-induced ER stress response, apoptosis and pathogenesis. Virology, 531, 48-56.
Crossref
 
Mahmood, Z. H., Sleman, R. R., & Uthman, A. U. (2011). Isolation and molecular characterization of Sul/01/09 avian infectious bronchitis virus, indicates the emergence of a new genotype in the Middle East. Veterinary Microbiology, 150(1-2), 21-27.
Crossref
 
Ndukwe, I. G., Amupitan, J. O., Isah, Y., & Adegoke, K. S. (2007). Phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of the crude extracts from the root, stem bark and leaves of Vitellaria paradoxa (GAERTN. F). African Journal of Biotechnology, 6(16), 1905-1909.
Crossref
 
Rady, I., Mohamed, H., Rady, M., Siddiqui, I. A., & Mukhtar, H. (2018). Cancer preventive and therapeutic effects of EGCG, the major polyphenol in green tea. Egyptian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5(1), 1-23.
Crossref
 
Shayganni, E., Bahmani, M., Asgary, S., & Rafieian-Kopaei, M. (2016). Inflammaging and cardiovascular disease: Management by medicinal plants. Phytomedicine, 23(11), 1119-1126.
Crossref
 
Sofowora, E. A. (1982). Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa. John Wiley and sons Ltd, New York. Pp. 256-257.
 
Thrall, M. A. (2007). Hematologia e bioquímica clínica veterinária.Philadelphia, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, São Paulo: Roca, p. 582.
 
Trease, G. E., & Evans, W. C. (2002). Pharmacognosy. 11th edition. Bailliere Tindll., London, Pytochemistry: Introduction in General Methods. Pp. 227-247.
 
Trevor, J. W. (2013). Veterinary Clincal Pathology and proceedings. Abbey Veterinary Services. Marck and Co. inc. Kendworth, N. J. USA. p. 243.
 
Worthington, K. J., Currie, R. J. W., & Jones, R. C. (2008). A reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction survey of infectious bronchitis virus genotypes in Western Europe from 2002 to 2006. Avian Pathology, 37(3), 247-257.
Crossref
 
Yalta, A. T. (2008). The accuracy of statistical distributions in Microsoft® Excel 2007. Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, 52(10), 4579-4586.
Crossref
 
Zhang, X. L., Guo, Y. S., Wang, C. H., Li, G. Q., Xu, J. J., Chung, H. Y., Ye, W. C., Li, Y. L., & Wang, G. C. (2014). Phenolic compounds from Origanum vulgare and their antioxidant and antiviral activities. Food chemistry, 152(1), 300-306.
Crossref