JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH AND DISEASES
Integrity Research Journals

ISSN: 2705-2214
Model: Open Access/Peer Reviewed
DOI: 10.31248/JPHD
Start Year: 2018
Email: jphd@integrityresjournals.org


Transmission, entry and pattern of infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)

https://doi.org/10.31248/JPHD2020.081   |   Article Number: 330354CD1   |   Vol.4 (2) - April 2021

Received Date: 10 June 2020   |   Accepted Date: 29 June 2020  |   Published Date: 30 April 2021

Authors:  Gabriel Ilerioluwa Oke* , Archibong Bassey , Precious Fadele , Melody Okereke and Omoniyi Wasiu Abiodun

Keywords: Pathogenesis, Coronavirus, COVID-19., transmission., virulence.

Ever since the first case of SARS-CoV-2 infection was detected, the World Health Organization (WHO) has been working intimately with clinicians and other health care workers to provide care for affected COVID-19 patients. Transmission of the virus occurs through the spread of respiratory and salivary droplets from persons to persons. It is expected that an infected person can transmit the disease to at least two other people because WHO estimated the transmission rate R0 to be between 2.0-2.5. One of the strategies adopted by WHO in the eradication of the virus is to interrupt human-to-human transmission. This article aims at providing scientific view on transmission, entry and pattern of SARS-CoV-2 with a perspective that brings more clarity about the novel coronavirus using knowledge and in-depth analysis of the existing data and facts on COVID-19 disease. It has been reported that the genomic sequence analysis of COVID-19 showed 88% identity with two bat-derived severe acute respiratory syndromes (SARS)-like coronaviruses and this explains the animal to human transmission in Wuhan, China. Meanwhile, human-to-human transmission of the infection is the most popular since the outbreak of the disease. Importantly, the sequence of the receptor-binding domain of COVID-19 spikes is like that of SARS-CoV and the entry of the virus into the host cells is most likely via the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE2) receptor. In conclusion, understanding the mode of transmission, immunogenicity of COVID-19 and exploring the pattern of viral infection is essential in determining the virulence and developing the most effective treatment regimens and vaccine towards the eradication of the virus.

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