Integrity Research Journals

ISSN: 2536-7064
Model: Open Access/Peer Reviewed
DOI: 10.31248/JBBD
Start Year: 2016

Microbiological and physicochemical studies of spent lubricating oil contaminated soil amended with wood ash   |   Article Number: D866E5BC1   |   Vol.1 (3) - August 2016

Received Date: 11 May 2016   |   Accepted Date: 28 June 2016  |   Published Date: 30 August 2016

Authors:  Stephen, E.* , Okwute, L. O. , Peter, J. O. and Ekeyi, D.

Keywords: Ash, contaminated soil, microbial count, physicochemical studies, spent lubricating oil.

Microbiological and physicochemical studies of spent lubricating oil contaminated soil amended with wood ash (10% amendment level) were carried out for a period of 56 days. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of wood ash in conditioning spent lubricating oil contaminated soil. Serial dilution and pour plate methods were used in enumerating microbial growth. The pH, nitrate, moisture, phosphorus, organic matter content were also determined. The heterotrophic bacteria count ranged from 1.0×104 to 2.1×104 cfu/g for the oil free soil (OFS), 1.3×104 to 2.7×104 cfu/g for the polluted control soil (PCS) and 2.1×104 to 2.3×104 cfu/g for the amended soil (AS) while the fungal count ranged from 4.0×103 to 4.7×104 cfu/g for OFS, 4.0×103 to 8.2×104 cfu/g for PCS and 4.0×103 to 10.8×104 cfu/g for AS. Higher microbial counts were found on the PCS and AS compared to the OFS. There were no significant differences at 5% probability level between the treatments. The organisms isolated were species of Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Aspergillus, Mucor, Penicillium and Saccharomyces. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in the moisture content, nitrate, organic matter content and electrical conductivity. However, there were significant differences in the pH, organic carbon and phosphorus contents of the soil samples at 5% probability level. The results obtained in this study demonstrate the potential of wood ash to considerably increase the organic carbon, phosphorus and pH of the soil to slightly alkaline condition which favours the biodegradation of the spent lubricating oil contaminated soil.

Akinsanmi, O. (1975). Certificate Agricultural Science. Longman, Nigeria, Pp.104-112
AOAC International (2005). Official method of analysis of AOAC international. Chemistry and analytical laboratory manual (18th ed.).
Bento, F. M., Carmago, F. O. A., Okeke, B. C., & Frankenberger, W. T. (2005). Comparative bioremediation of soil contaminated with diesel oil by natural attenuation, biostimulation and bioaugmentation. Bioresource Technology, 96, 1049 -1055.
Boonchan, M. L., & Stanley, G. A. (2000). "Degradation and mineralization of high moleculartoweight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by defined fungal-bacterial co-cultures," Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 66(3), 1007-1019.
Cho, B. H., Chino, H., Tsuji, H., Kunito, T., Nagaoka, K., Otsuka, S., Yamashita, K., Matsumoto, S & Oyaiz, H (1997). Laboratory –scale bioremediation of a contaminated soil of Kuwait with amendment materials. Chemosphere, 35 (7), 1599-1611.
Demeyer, A., Voundi Nkana, J. C., & Verloo, M. G. (2001). Characteristics of wood ash and influence on soil properties and nutrient uptake: an overview. Bioresource Technology, 77(3), 287–295.
Etiegni, L., & Campbell, A. G. (1991). Physical and chemical characteristics of wood ash. Bioresource Technology, 37(2), 173.
Foght, J. M., & Westlake, D. W. S. (1997) Biodegradation of hydrocarbons in freshwater. In: Vandermeulen and Hrudey (Ed), Oil in Freshwater: Chemistry, Biology, Counter measure Technology. Pergamon Press, New York, Pp. 217-230.
Ibitoye, A. A. (2006). Laboratory Manual on Basic Soil Analysis (2nd ed). Foladave Nigeria Limited, Akure, Pp. 30-37.
Ijah, U. J. J. (1998). Studies on relative capabilities of bacterial and Yeasts isolates from tropical soils in degrading crude oil. Waste Management, 18, 293-299.
Ijah, U. J. J., Tambaya, K., & Uwabujo, A. E. (2000). The fate of spilled kerosene in the soil: A case study of kerosene spillage in Maikunkele, Niger state, Nigeria. Journal of Nigerian Association of Teachers of Technology, 3, 275-283.
Ijah, U. J. J., & Ndana, M (2000). Stimulated biodegradation of crude oil in soil amended with periwinkle shells. The Environmentalist, 23, 249-254.
Mijango, I., Garbisu, C., Aristegieta, A., Mendarte, S., & Albizu, I. (2004). Wood ash as fertilizer and soil acidity corrector: effect on soil quality and crop yield. Basque Institute of Agricultural Research and Development. Pp. 808-810.
Misra, M. K., Ragland, K. W., & Baker, A. J. (1993). Wood Ash Composition as a Function of Furnace Temperature. Biomass and Bioenergy 4(2), 103-116.
Namkoong, W., Hwang, E., Park, J., & Choi, J. (2002). Bioremediation of diesel contaminated soil with composting. Environmental Pollution, 119, 23-31.
Ndubuisi-Nnaji, U. U., John, O. U. M., & Ofon, U. A. (2015). Population dynamics and distribution of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria in Automobile workshops within Uyo metropolis, Akwa Ibom State. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management, 19(4), 585-589
Onuoha, S. C., Olugbue, V. U., Uraku, J. A., & Uchendu, D. O. (2011). Biodegradation potentials of hydrocarbon degraders from waste –lubricating oil spilled soils in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 13, 586-590.
Okoh, I. A., Ajisebutu, S., Babalola, G. O., & Trejo-Hernandez, M. R. (2001). A study of the potentials of Burkholderia cepacill Strain (RQI) in the biodegradations of heavy crude oil (Maya). International Microbiology. 4, 83-87.
Okwute, L. O. Stephen, E., & Anyanwu, P. I. (2015). Biodegradation of palm oil mill effluent (POME) and Lipase Activity by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans. British Microbiology and Research Journal, 9(5), 1-10.
Okwute, L. O., & Ijah, U. J. J. (2014). Changes in Microbial Population of Palm oil mill effluent polluted soil amended with chicken droppings and cow dung. British Biotechnology Journal, 4(3), 279-288.
Philips, J. C., & Atlas, R. M. (2005). Bioremediation of contaminated soil and aquifers. In: Bioremediation: Applied Microbial solution for real world environmental clean Up, Atlas, R.M., and Jim, C.P (Ed) ASM press, ISBN 1to55591to239to2, Washington, D.C, Pp.139.
Public Health England (2014). Preparation of samples and dilutions, plating and sub-culture. Microbiology Services. Food, Water and Environmental Microbiology Standard Method FNES26 (F2). Version 1
Soil Survey Laboratory (1996). Soil survey laboratory methods manual. Soil survey investigations report no. 42. Ver. 3.0. USDAtoNRCS, Lincoln, NE.
Stephen, E., & Egene, U. M. (2012). Microbiology and physicochemical properties of soil polluted with lubricating oil in Anyingba, Kogi State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Technological Research, 7(2), 49-52.
Stephen, E., Job, O. S., & Abioye, O. P. (2013). Study on Biodegradation of Diesel contaminated Soil Amended with Cowpea Chaff. Journal of Science and Multidisciplinary Research, 2(1),14-18.
Stephen, E., & Temola, O. T. (2014). Enhanced Biodegradation of Spent Lubricating Oil Contaminated Soil Using Poultry Litter. British Biotechnology Journal, 4(8), 868-876.
Tropical Development Institute (TDI) (1984). Outlined method for the determination of organic matter content.
Van Hamme, J. D., Singh, A., & Ward, O. P. (2003). Recent advances in petroleum Microbiology. Molecular Biology Review, 67, 503-549.
Wang, J., Jiq, C. R., Wong, C. K., & Wong, P. K. (2000). Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons created in lubricating oils. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 120, 381-396.
Yong, R. N., Mohammed, A. M. O., & Warkentin, B. P. (1992). Principles of contaminant transport in soils. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam. 258p.