Integrity Research Journals

ISSN: 2536-7064
Model: Open Access/Peer Reviewed
DOI: 10.31248/JBBD
Start Year: 2016

Medicinal prospective of Citrus limon and Citrus sinensis peels essential oil by Gas Chromatography/ Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) compositional analysis   |   Article Number: 9C907C323   |   Vol.5 (3) - October 2020

Received Date: 19 June 2020   |   Accepted Date: 27 July 2020  |   Published Date: 30 October 2020

Authors:  Uraku, A. J.* , Uraku, O. H. , Nwankwo, V. O. U. , Okoye, C. J. , Ozioma, P. E. , Edenta, C. and Ezeali, C.

Keywords: Citrus peels, methanol extract, medicinal phytochemicals, environmental wastes.

Citrus fruits are highly nutritious and medicinal fruits that are commonly cultivated throughout the tropics. This study was carried out to determine the bioactive compounds of the methanol peel extracts of Citrus limon and Citrus sinensis. The peels from fresh fruits of C. limon and C. sinensis were air-dried at room temperature and were pulverized into fine powder. The bioactive determinations were carried out by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). The mass spectrum of the compounds found in the peels extract was matched with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) library. The results showed that four (4) and five (5) bioactive compounds were identified in C. limon and C. sinensis methanol peel extracts respectively. The C. limon peel extract contained 4-(methylsulfanyl) but-1-en-3-yne, Sulfanylphenylium, 1,3-thiazole and 3-methylidenecyclobutanecarbonitrile while C. sinensis contained Pyridine-2-carbaldehyde, 1-Methyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde, Glutamic acid, 2-Ethyl-5-methyl-1H-pyrrole and Pyrrolidin-2-one. The results of this study therefore unveiled that the C. limon and C. sinensis peel extracts contained variable bioactive compounds with medicinal value and could be useful raw materials for pharmaceutical industries.

Arora, M., & Kaur, P. (2013). Phytochemical screening of orange peel and pulp. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, 2(12), 517-522.
Choike, P. B., Bhor, A. K., Shete, A. M., Sonawane, R. K. (2017). Extraction and GC-MS analysis of orange (Citrus sinensis) peel oil. Research Journal of Life Sciences, Bioinformatics, Pharmaceutical and Chemical Science, 2(5), 41-51.
Das, D. R., Sachan, A. K., Shuaib, M., & Imtiyaz, M. (2014). Chemical charecterization of volatile oil components of Citrus reticulata by GC-MS analysis. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3(6), 1197-1204.
Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Database (2014). Retrieved from
Gotmare, S., & Gade, J. (2018). Orange peel: A potential source of phytochemical compounds. International Journal of ChemTech Research, 11(02), 240-243
Kadhim, M. J., Al-Rubaye, A. F., & Hameed, I. H. (2017). Determination of Bioactive Compounds of Methanolic Extract of Vitis Vinifera Using GC-MS. International Journal of Toxicological and Pharmacological Research, 9(2), 113-126.
Kamaliroosta, L., Zolfaghari, M., Shafiee, S., Larijani, K., & Zojaji, M. (2016). Chemical Identifications of Citrus Peels Essential Oils. Journal of Food Biosciences and Technology, 6(2), 69-76.
Kumar, K. A., & Vijayalakshmi, K. (2011). GC-MS analysis of phytochemical constituents in ethanolic extract of Punica granatum peel and Vitis vinifera seeds. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, 2(4), 461-468.
Larijani, K. (2004). Extraction, purification and identification of natural compounds, as wellas analysis of the essential oils of some Iran's native plants. Ph.D Thesis of Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
Mirza, M., & Bahernik, Z. (2006). The role of removing terepene in chemical composition of citrus peel essential oil. Iran's Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, 22(3), 225-250.
NIST (2010). Automated mass spectral library with search program (Data version: NIST11, version 2.0). National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD., USA.
Njoroge, S. M., Koaze, H., Mwaniki, M., Minh Tu, N. T., & Sawamura, M. (2005). Essential oils of Kenyan Citrus fruits: volatile components of two varieties of mandarins (Citrus reticulata) and a tangelo (C. paradisi× C. tangerina). Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 20(1), 74-79.
Prasad, D. A., Prasad, B. R., Prasad, D. K., Shetty, P., & Kumar, K. S. (2016). GC-MS compositional analysis of essential oil of leaf and fruit rind of Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. from Coastal Karnataka, India. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 6(5), 68-72.
Qiao, Y., Xie, B. J., Zhang, Y., Zhang, Y., Fan, G., Yao, X. L., & Pan, S. Y. (2008). Characterization of aroma active compounds in fruit juice and peel oil of Jinchen sweet orange fruit (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) by GC-MS and GC-O. Molecules, 13(6), 1333-1344.
Rashmi, Y., Reena, S. L. & Muhammad S. D. (2017). GC/MS analysis, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oil extracted from Citrus paradisiimacfad fruit peels. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, 8(7), 653-660.
Rohloff, J. (2015). Analysis of phenolic and cyclic compounds in plants using derivatization techniques in combination with GC-MS-based metabolite profiling. Molecules, 20(2), 3431-3462.
Suja, D., Bupesh, G., Rajendiran, N., Mohan, V., Ramasamy, P., Muthiah, N. S., Arul, A. E., Meenakumari, K., & Prabu, K. (2017). Phytochemical screening, antioxidant, antibacterial activities of Citrus limon and Citrus sinensis peel extracts. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Chinese Medicine, 1(2): 000108.
Tamil, S. S., Jamuna, S., Thekan, S., & Paulsamy, S. (2017). Profiling of bioactive chemical entities in BarleriabuxifoliaL using GC-MS analysis-a significant ethno medicinal plant. Journal of Ayurvedic and Herbal Medicine, 3(2), 63-77
Uraku, A. J., & Igwenyi, I. O. (2016). Comparative studies of phytochemical and vitamin constituents of Citrus sinensis and Vitisvinitera peels. EC Nutrition, 4(2), 812-816.
Uraku, A. J., Uraku, H. O., Nweke F. N., Enemecukwu, B. N. (In press). GC-MS Technique Determination of Phytocomponents in Emilia pretermissa Milne-Redh leaves. Kuwait Medical Journal.
Uraku, A. J., Uraku, O. H., Nweke, F. N., Orji, O. U., Igwenyi, I. O., Edwin, N., Ezeani, N. N. (2018). Phytochemical and GC-MS evaluation of bioactive principle of Vitis vinifera peels. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences, 11(4),192-198.