Integrity Research Journals

ISSN: 2536-7099
Model: Open Access/Peer Reviewed
DOI: 10.31248/JASVM
Start Year: 2016

Effect of graded levels of ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale) meal on serum biochemistry of pubertal New Zealand White rabbits   |   Article Number: AB68D17F7   |   Vol.3 (4) - August 2018

Received Date: 16 September 2017   |   Accepted Date: 11 October 2017  |   Published Date: 30 August 2018

Authors:  Ilo, S.U. and Egu, U. N.*

Keywords: Blood, feed, trial, evaluation, gender, rabbits

Forty-eight sexually matured (7 to 8 months old) healthy male and female New Zealand White rabbits were used to determine the effect of graded levels of ginger rhizome meal on serum biochemical indices. The rabbits were divided into 4 treatment groups, namely T1, T2, T3 and T4 and assigned to four treatment diets in a Complete Randomized Block Design (CRBD). Each of the treatment groups consisted of 12 rabbits (6 does and 6 bucks) replicated 3 times with 2 rabbits per replicate. The levels of inclusion of the ginger rhizome meal were 0.00, 5.00, 10.00 and 15.00% for the T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively. T1 serves as the control. The rabbits were fed twice daily, in the morning and evening, water was given ad libitum to the rabbits. After 30 days, blood samples were collected from 12 rabbits (6 does and 6 bucks) in each treatment group for serum biochemical evaluation. The results showed that there were significant differences (P<0.05) among the treatment groups in the serum biochemical parameters: urea (significant difference (P<0.05) between rabbits on T1, T2, T3 and those on T4); Aspartate transaminase (significant difference (P<0.05) between rabbits on T2 and T1; between T3 and those on T1 and T4); Alanine transaminase (significant difference (P<0.05) between rabbits on T1, T3, T4 and those onT20); and glucose (significant difference (P<0.05) between rabbits on T2 and those on T1, T3, T4), except Alkaline phosphatase and cholesterol which were similar (P>0.05) among the treatment groups. The results of this study indicate that inclusion of ginger rhizome meal in the diets of the rabbits up to 5% improved their serum biochemical indices.

Adiele, J. G., Audu, H. O., Madu, T., & Nwaogwugwu, R. O. (2005). Weather in 2005 at Umudike and its possible Impact on root crops production. National Root Crops Research Institute Annual Report for 2005, Pp.252-255.
Afzal, M., Al-Hadili, D., Menon, M., Pesek, L., & Dhami, M. S. C. (2001). Ginger: an ethnomedicinal, Chemical and pharmacological review. Drug Metab. Drug Interact., 18, 159-190.
Ahamefule, F. O, Eduok, G. O., Usman, A., Amaefule, K. U., Obua, B. E., & Oguike, S. A. (2006). Blood Biochemistry and Haematology of Weaner Rabbits Fed Sundried, Ensiled and Fermented Cassava Peel Based Diets. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 5(3), 248-253.
Akinmutimi, A. H. (2001). The Effect of Potash-Cooked lima bean (Phaseoluslunatus) on Broiler Starter Diets. Nig. Agri. J., 32, 109-118.
Arshad, H. R., Fahad, M. A., & Salah, M. A. (2014). Active ingredients of ginger as potential candidates in the prevention and treatment of diseases via modulation of biological activities. Int. J. Physiol. Pathophysiol. Pharmacol., 6(2), 125-136.
Baker, F. J., & Silverton, R. F. (1986).Introduction to Medical Laboratory Technology 6thEdn.Buther-Worth England.
Banerjee, G. C. (2007). A Textbook of Animal Husbandry (8th edition) Oxford and IBH Publishing co PVT Ltd New Delhi India.
Bartley, J., & Jacobs, A. (2000). Effects of drying on flavour compounds in Australian grown ginger (Zingiberofficinale). J. Sci. Food and Agric., 80, 209-215.
Egu, U. N. (2016). Effect of gonadotrophin (Diclair®) on semen characteristics, body conformation and hormonal profile of mature male Nw Zealand White rabbits. Inter J. Agric. Biosci, 4(6), 260-265.
Esonu, B. O., Emenalom, O. O., Udedibie, A. B. I., Herbert, U., Ekpor, C., & Iheukwumere, F. C, (2001). Performance and Blood Chemistry of Weaner Pigs Fed Raw Mucuna Bean Velvet Bean Meal. Trop. Anim. Prod. Invest., 4, 49-54.
Etim, N. N., & Oguike, M. A. (2011).Haematology and Serum Biochemistry of Rabbits Does Fed Aspilia Africana. Nigerian Journal of Agriculture, Food and Environment, 7(4), 121-127.
Ewuola, E. O., Jimoh, O. A., Atuma, O. V., & Soipe, O. D. (2012). Haematological and serum biochemical responses of growing rabbits fed graded levels of Moringaoleiferaleaf meal. Proceedings 10 th World Rabbit Congress – September 3rd – 6th – Sharm El- Sheikh –Egypt, 679-683.
Ewuola, E. O., Sokunbi, A. O., Alaba, O., Omotosho, J. O., & Omoniyi, A. B. (2010). Haematology and serum biochemistry of weaned rabbits fed dietary prebiotics and probiotics. In: Proceedings of 35th Conf. of Nig Society for Anim. Prod. 14th -17th March, University of Ibadan.
FAO (2006).Food and Agricultural Organization Statistical Data Base. Rome, Italy. Pp. 234-236.
Guyer, D. (2003). Advanced Medical Centre. Zionsville, Indian, Indianapolis, U.S.A.
Harper, A. F., Rodwell, V. W., & Mayes, P. A. (1999). Review of Light and breeding schedule on rabbit performance. Journal of Appl. Rabbit Res. 5, 33-37.
Hazan, H. A., Rasheed Raauf, A. M., Abd Razik, B. M., & Rassool Hassan, B. A. (2012). Pharmaceut Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Crude Extracts Isolated from Zingiber Officinale by Different Solvents. Pharmaceute Anat Acta. 3,184.
Hoffman, R. S., & Smith, A. T. (2005). Order "Lagomorpha" in Willson D.E. Reader, D.M Mammal of the World. Pp. 205-206.
Iheukwumere, F. C., & Herbert, U. (2002). Physiological responses of broiler chickens to quantitative water restriction: Haematology and serum biochemistry. International Journal of Poultry Science, 2(2), 117-119.
Merck, (2010). The Merck Veterinary Manual.10th Edition Merck and Co., Inc. White House Station N. J., USA. Pp. 1470-1492.
Merck, (2012). The Merck Veterinary Manual.12th Edition Merck and Co. Inc. White House Station N.J., U S A. Pp.1470-1492.
Mohammed, G., Igwebuike, J. U., Adamu, S. B., Alade, N. K., & Asheikh, L. G. (2014). Effect of Feeding Different Blood-Rumen Content Mixtures on Blood Parameters and Carcass Measurements of Growing Rabbits. International Journal of Science and Nature, 5(1), 61-66.
Mufwa, B. J., Yakubu, B., Kibon, A., & Zaklag, D. U. (2011). Haematological and Biochemical Indices of Growing Rabbit FedGraded Levels of Brewers Dried Grains. Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences. 3, 13-19.
Muhammad, J., Durrani, F., Hafeez, A., Khan, R. U., & Ahmad, I. (2009). Effect of aqueous extract of plant mixture on carcass quality of broiler chicks Journal of Agriculture and Biological Science. Pp. 956-59
Murray, R. K., Granner, D. R., Mayes, P. A., & Rodwell, V. W. (2003).Herper's Illustrated Biochemistry. 26thEdn. McGraw Hill Companies, inc. USA, p. 693.
Nelson, D. L., & Cox, M. M. (2005).Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry. 4th Edn. W. H. Freeman and Company New York, p. 119
Obi, I. U. (2002). Statistical Methods of Detecting Differences between treatment means, 16th edition, Snapp Press, Enugu, Nigeria.
Ogbuewu, I. P., Jiwuba, P. D., Ezeokeke, C. T., Uchegbu, M. C., Okoli, I. C., & Iloeje, M. U. (2014). Evaluation of phytochemical and nutritional composition of ginger rhizome powder.Int'l Journal of Agric and Rural Rural Dev., 17(1), 1663-1670.
Ojebiyi, O. O., Farinu, G. O., Togun, V. A. Akinlade, J. A., Aderininola, O. A., & Rafiu, T. A. (2006). Effect of quantitative concentrate reduction on the growth of weaned rabbits. Proc. of the 11th Annual Conf. of Animal Science Association of Nigeria. 121-125.
Okoye, F. C., Ugwueme, M. C., & Mbarab, J. U. (2006). Effect of local species on the utilization of cassava peel meal based diets by weaner rabbits. Parkistan Journal of Nutrition. 5(3), 202-205.
Ozkan, C., Kaya, A., & Akgül, Y. (2012).Normal values of haematological and some biochemical parameters in serum and urine of New Zealand White rabbits.World Rabbit Sci. 20, 253-259.
Rej, R., & Hoder, M. (1983). Alanine Transaminase. In: Methods of EnzymaticAnalysis 3rd Edition Bergmeyer, H. U., Berg, I. & Grassal, M. (eds). WeinhenVelag. Chemie 1, 3416-433.
Sowande, O. S., Aina, A. B. J., Oguntona, E. B., Fanimo, A. O., Unaka, V. U., Itassan, T. A., & Oseni, M. O. (2008). Performance, blood biochemical constituents and mineral balance of West African Dwarf Sheep fed preserved Elephant grass, Layer's droppings and cassava peel diet during dry season. Nig. J. Anim. Prod. 35(1), 90-102.
SPSS (1996). Statistical package for social Sciences. SPSS/STAT version 7.5 for windows.
University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine (2002). Rabbit reference range.
Zhang, G. F., Yang, Z. B., Wang, Y., Yang, W. R., Jiang, S. Z., & Gai, G. S. (2009). Effect of ginger root (Zingiberofficinale) processed to different particle sizes on growth performance, antioxidant status, and serum metabolites of broiler chickens. Poultry Science 88, 2159-2166.
Zhao, X., Yang, Z. B., Yang, W. R., Wang, Y., Jiang, S. Z., & Zhang, G. G. (2011). Effects of ginger root on laying performance and antioxidant status of laying hens and on dietary oxidation stability. Poult. Sci., 90, 1720-1727.
Zick, S. M., Djuric, Z., Ruffin, M. T., Litzinger, A. J., Normolle, D. P., Alrawi, S., Feng, M. R., & Brenner, D. E. (2008). Pharmacokinetics of 6-gingerol, 8-gngerol, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogaol and conjugate metabolites in healthy human subjects. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 17, 1930-1936.