Integrity Research Journals

ISSN: 2536-7099
Model: Open Access/Peer Reviewed
DOI: 10.31248/JASVM
Start Year: 2016

Influence of diets supplemented with Carica papaya and Chromolaena odorata leaf meals on performance, blood profile and gut integrity of broiler chickens   |   Article Number: 64322BF36   |   Vol.5 (5) - October 2020

Received Date: 30 July 2020   |   Accepted Date: 26 August 2020  |   Published Date: 30 October 2020

Authors:  B. R. O. Omidiwura* , A. F. Agboola , O. Y. Omotosho and J. A. Mustapha-Olosho

Keywords: carcass characteristics, Blood metabolites, broiler performance, intestinal microbiota, pawpaw leaf, siam weed leaf.

This study was carried out to investigate the effect of Carica papaya (CP) and Chromolaena odorata (CO) on growth performance, blood profile, gut integrity of broiler chicken. In a 42-day study, 200 one-day old Arbor Acre broilers were weighed and randomly allotted to 5 dietary treatments with 5 replicates having 8 birds in each group. The treatments were basal diet (negative control, NC), NC + 0.05% antibiotics (positive control, PC), NC + 3% CP, NC + 3% CO and NC + 1.5% CP + 1.5% CO in a completely randomised design. The growth performance indices were measured. On day 42, blood samples were collected, gut microbial population and histopathology were assayed following standard procedure. Results showed that average daily weight gain (g/bird/day) of birds on NC, PC and combination of 1.5% CP + 1.5% CO leaf meals were significantly similar at the finisher phase. The feed intake of birds on NC and PC was higher than those on 3% CO and combination of 1.5% CP + 1.5% CO leaf meals. The dietary treatment had effect on feed conversion ratio in the finisher phase. The highest total Lactobacillus count was observed in 3% CO leaf meal diet, while the antibiotics diet (PC) had the highest Escherichia coli count, and the lowest total Escherichia coli count (3.28 cfu x105) was recorded for birds on combination of 1.5% CP + 1.5% CO leaf meals. The histopathology of the gut shows that only those fed 3% CP had eroded villi of the mucosa layer, while all other treatments show normal mucosa layer, moderate inflammatory infiltration of the gland and lamina propia except those fed combinations of 1.5% CP + 1.5% CO. Conclusively, the combination of the leaf meals at 1.5% inclusion in broiler diet had positive effect on beneficial gut microbial population.

Agboola, A. F., & Adenuga, A. A. (2015). Performance and organ histopathology of growing Japanese quail fed heat treated jatropha seed cake substituted for Soyabean meal. Trop. Anim. Prod. Invest., 18 (1), 1-8.
Agboola, B. E., Ologhobo, A. D., Adejumo, I. O., & Adeyemo, G. O. (2018). Response of broiler chickens to Carica papaya and Talinium triangulare leaf meal under normal and subnormal diets. Annual Research and Review in Biology, 23(4), 1-7.
Akinmutimi, A. H., & Akufo, A. (2006). The effect of graded levels of dietary inclusion of siam weed (Chromolaena odorata) leaf meal in grower rabbit diet in tropical environment. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 5(8), 707-711.
Rahmani, A. H., & Aldebasi, Y. H. (2017). Ficus carica and its constituents role in management of diseases. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 10(6), 49-53.
Bonsnes, R., & Tausslay, H. H. (1945). Colorimetric determination of creatinine by Jaffe reaction. Journal of Biochemistry, 158, 581-591.
Bonsu, F. R. K., Kagya-Agyemang, J. K., Kwenin, W. K. J., Hope, K. N. and Sekyere, F. O. (2013). Growth performance, haematological indices and carcass characteristics of broilers fed diet containing different levels of Chromolaena odorata leaf meal. Egerton Journal of Science and Technology, 13, 115-125.
Donkoh, A., Atuahene, C. C., Anang, D. M., Badu-Botah, E. K., & Boakye, K. T. (2002). Response of broiler chickens to the dietary inclusion of Chromolaena odorata leaf meal. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences, 11(2), 309-320.
Ekenyem, B. U., Obih, T. K. O., Odo, B. I., & Mba, F. I. A. (2010). Performance of finisher broiler chicks fed varying replacement levels of Chromolaena odorata leaf for soyabean meal. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 9(6), 558-561.
Haruna, M. A., & Odunsi, A. A. (2018). Growth performance and carcass quality of broiler chickens fed dried pawpaw (Carica papaya linn) latex. Journal of World Poultry Research, 8(2), 31-36.
Igboh, M. N., Ikewuchi, C. J., & Ikewuchi, C. C. (2009). Chemical profile of Chromolaena odorata L. (King and Robinson) leaves. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 8(5), 521-524.
Iji, P. A., Saki, A., & Tivey, D. R. (2001). Body and intestinal growth of broiler chicks on a commercial starter diet. 1. Intestinal weight and mucosal development. British Poultry Science, 42(4), 505-513.
Iyayi, E. A., & Tewe, O. O. (1998). Serum total protein, urea and creatinine levels as indices of quality of cassava diets for pigs. Tropical Veterinary, 16, 59-67.
Jain, N. C. (1993). Essential of veterinary hematology. Copyrights by Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia.
Jiwuba, P. C., Ogbuewu, I. P., Dauda, E., & Azubuike, C. C. (2017). Blood profile and gut microbial load of broilers fed siam weed (Chromolaena odorata) leaf meal in their diets. Agricultura, 14(1-2), 17-24.
Khan, T. A., & Zafar, F. (2005). Haematological study in response to varying doses of estrogen in broiler chicken. International Journal Poultry Science, 4(10), 748-751.
Mitruka, B. M., & Rawnsley, H. M. (1977). Clinical biochemical and hematological reference values in normal experimental animals. In: Clinical biochemical and hematological reference values in normal experimental animals. Masson Pub. USA Inc., N.Y. Pp. 21-84.
Mounia, M., Nadir, A., & Omar, B. (2018). Effects of phytogenic products on gut morpho-histology of broiler chickens. International Journal of Veterinary Science and Research, 4(1), 009-0011.
National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) (2018). Press release on antimicrobial resistance.
National Research Council (NRC) (1994). Nutrient Requirement of Domestic Animals. Nutrient Requirement of Poultry. 9th Revised Edition. National Academy Press, Washington DC.
Fernando, U., Biswas, D., Allan, B., Wilson, P., & Potter, A. A. (2007). Influence of Campylobacter jejuni fliA, RpoN and Flgk genes on colonization of the chicken gut. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 118(2), 194-200.
Peters, D. (1982). Protein (total protein) in serum, urine and cerebrospinal fluid. Selected Methods of Clinical Chemistry, 9, 45-49.
Omeke, P. O., Obi, J. O., Orabueze, N. A. I., & Ike, A. C. (2019). Antibacterial activity of leaf extract of Chromolaena odorata and the effect of its combination with some conventional antibiotics on Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from wounds. Journal of Applied Biology and Biotechnology, 7(03), 36-40.
Omidiwura, B. R. O., Ajibade, J. F., & Azeez, A. I. (2017). Qualitative and quantitative analysis of pawpaw (Carica papaya) leaf extract and its antimicrobial effect in animal production. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production, 44(3), 78-83.
Ong, H. C., Chua, S., & Milow, P. (2011). Ethno-medicinal plants used by the Temuan villagers in Kampung Jeram Kedah, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Studies on Ethno-Medicine, 5(2), 95-100.
Unigwe, C. R., Okorafor, U. P., Ogbu, U. M., & Nwufoh, O. C. (2014). The nutritive profile of sun-dried paw-paw (carica papaya) leaf meal and its effect on the growth performance of broiler chickens. International Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences and Technology, 20(2), 72-78.
Wealleans, A. L., Sirukhi, M., & Egorov, I. A. (2017). Performance, gut morphology effects of a Bacillus probiotic, avilamycin and their combination in mixed grains broiler diets. Journal British Poultry Science, 58(5), 523-529.
Wintrobe, M. M. (1956). Clinical haematology. 4th edition. Kimpton, London. p. 122.
Wootton, D. P. (1964). Microanalysis in medical biochemistry, 4th edition. Churchill, London. p. 86.
Mehdi, Y., Létourneau-Montminy, M. P., Gaucher, M. L., Chorfi, Y., Suresh, G., Rouissi, T., Brar, S. K., Côté, C., Ramirez, A. A., & Godbout, S. (2018). Use of antibiotics in broiler production: Global impacts and alternatives. Animal Nutrition, 4(2), 170-178.