Received Date: 21 December 2016 | Accepted Date: 15 February 2017 | Published Date: 30 April 2017
Keywords: performance., Broiler, feed efficiency, sweet orange peel meal, wheat offal.
Two-hundred (200) four weeks old broiler chickens of Anak 2000 breed from Imo State Polytechnic Research farm were used to investigate the effect of sweet orange peel meal in broiler rations. The birds were fed on 0%, 2.50%, 5.00%, 7.50% and 10.00% dietary inclusion of sweet orange peel meal as replacement for wheat offals in a 28 day feeding trial. Significant difference between dietary levels of sweet orange peel meal and wheat offals were observed on feed efficiency and weight gain (p<0.05). Increase in dietary levels of sweet orange peel meal reduced feed transit time in gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) (p<0.05) while supplementary wheat offal had the opposite effect (p<0.05). It was concluded that broiler chickens could tolerate up to 7.50% dietary levels of sweet orange peel meal without wheat offal added to such a diet, performance was comparable to that of birds fed a standard diet with money saved in the process.
|Aggrey, E. (2013). Dietary Replacement Value of Orange (Citrus sinesis) peels for Wheat Offals on the Performance of Broiler Finishers. HND Research Project.Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo - Ohaji, Nigeria. 66p.|
|Agu P.N. (2006). Nutritional Evaluation of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) Peel as a Feed Resource in Broiler production. Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis.Department of Animal Production, University of Agriculture, Makurdi. Benue State. Nigeria.|
|Ahaotu, E. O. (1999). Replacement value of Rubber seed cake for Groundnut cake on the performance of broiler chicks from 0 – 9 weeks of age. M.Sc. Thesis, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria. Pp. 1-5.|
|Ahaotu, E. O. and Ekenyem, B. U. (2009).Replacement value of feather meal for fish meal on performance of finisher Broiler chicks. Int. J. of Tropic Agric and Food sys, 3(3), 233-237.|
|Ahaotu, E. O., Guang – Hai, Q., Ekenyem, B. U., Korie, A. U., & Madubuike, F. N. (2010). Replacement value of feather meal for fish meal on the performance of Starter Cockerels. Animal Production Advances, 6(1), 48-52.|
|Ahaotu, E. O., Ogbuokiri, U. D. E., Korie, A. U., Ekenyem, B. U., Onwuka, C. F. I., Okoli, I. C., Njoku, P. O., Ndubuisi, E. C. & Madubuike, F. N. (2011). Effects of graded levels of pigeon pea meal on growth performance and Organ Characteristics of finisher broilers. Animal Production Research Advances. 7(2), 125-129|
|Ahaotu, E. O, Ehirim, V. I, Nkwocha, G. A, Iwuanyanwu, U. P., & Ihezuo, J. P. (2012). Carcass and performance characteristics of Khaki Campbell Ducklings fed high fiber rice milling waste. Proc. 17th Ann. Conf. Animal Science Association of Nigeria, September 9-13, Abuja. Pp. 326-329.|
|Ahaotu, E. O., Adeyeye S. A., & Okonkwo, V. N. (2015). Replacement value of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peels for wheat offals in the performance of broiler starter diets. Scientific Journal of Animal Science. 4(3), 42-50.|
|Ahaotu, E. O., Okonkwo, V. N., Okorie, K. C., & Akinfemi, A. (2016a).Effect of Bambara Nut Sievate Supplemented Exogenous Enzymes on Haematology and Serum Biochemical Value of Finisher Broiler Birds. Book of Proceedings of Academic Conference on Positioning Sub-Saharan Africa for Development in the New Development.22-23rd June, 2016, Cambridge Hall, University of Ghana, Legon Campus, Accra, 9(1), 32-39.|
|Ahaotu, E. O., Okonkwo, V. N., Ihenacho, R. A., & Ebochuo, V.|
|C. (2016b). Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Finisher Broilers fed Brewer's dried grain supplemented with Exogenous Enzymes. Book of Proceedings of Academic Conference on Positioning Sub-Saharan Africa for Development in the New Development.22-23rd June, 2016, Cambridge Hall, University of Ghana, Legon Campus, Accra, 9(1), 200-208.|
|AOAC (2001).Official methods of analysis.Revised edition.Association of official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC.|
|Baird, D. M., Allison, J. R., & Heaton, E. K., (1974). The energy value for and influence of citrus pulp in finishing diets for swine. J. Anim. Sci., 38(3), 545-553.
|Chaudry, M. A., Badshah, A., Bibi, N., Zeb, A., Ahmed, T., Ali, S., & TerMeulen, U. (2004). Citrus waste utilization in poultry rations. Arch. Geflügelk., 68(5), 206-210.|
|Coloni, R. D., Lui, J. F., & Malheiros, E. B., (2009). Citrus pulp use of the feeding of growth in rabbits. PUBVET, 3(14), 353.|
|Florou-Paneri, P., Babidis, V., Kufidis, D., Christaki, E., & Spais, A. B. (2001). Effect of feeding dried citrus pulp on quail laying performance and some egg quality characteristics. Arch. Geflügelk., 65, 178-181.|
|Godoy, R and Batista, L. A. (1997). Study of the tannin content of forage pigeon pea (Cajanuscajan) germplasm. RevistaBrasileria – de Zooteenia, 26 (3): 443-446.|
|Göhl, B., (1981). Citrus by-products for animal feed. In: Ruminant nutrition: selected articles from the World Animal Review, FAO, 1981.|
|Gordon, S. P., & Gordon, F. S. (2004). Contemporary statistics: A computer approach. McGraw – Hill Publishers, U.S.A.|
|Grant, G (1999). Metabolic and hormonal changes in rats resulting from consumption of kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) or soyabean (Glycine max). Nutri. Reps. Int., 36, 763-772.|
|Grant, E., (2007). Citrus world. Angus Journal, Pp. 234-238.|
|Grueling, H. I. (2000).The Chemical analysis of tissues. Revised edition: Cornell University Press, U. S. A.|
|Hon, F. M., Oluremi, O. I. A. & Anugwa, F. O. I. (2009). The effect of dried sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) fruit pulp meal on the growth performance of rabbits. Pakistan J. Nutr., 8(8), 1150-1155.
|Ipinjolu, J. K. (2000). Performance of juvenile orange koi carp (Cyprinuscarpio L.) fed diets supplemented with sweet orange peel meal: Body composition, nutrition, utilization and skin pigmentation. Sokoto J. Vet. Sci., 2000: 228-229.|
|Imo State Ministry of Lands and Survey (IMLS) (2009). Longitudes and Latitudes locations of Umuagwo, Ohaji / Egbema Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria.|
|Madubuike, F. N., Ekenyem, B. U. & Ahaotu, E. O. (2009). Effects of dietary substitution of feather meal for fish meal on the performance of starter broilers.Anim. Product. Res. Advances. 5(1), 1-5.|
|Madubuike, F. N., Agiang, E. A., Ekenyem, B. U., & Ahaotu, E. O. (2003). Replacement value of Rubber seed cake for Groundnut cake on performance of starter broilers. J. Agric and Food Sci., 1, 21-27.|
|Mourao, J. L., Pinheiro, V. M., Prates, J. A. M., Bessa, R. J. B., Ferreira, L. M. A., Fontes, C. M. G. A. & Ponte, P. I. P. (2008). Effect of dietary dehydrated pasture and citrus pulp on the performance and meat quality of broiler chickens. Poult. Sci., 87, 733-743.
|Nazok, A., Rezaei, M., & Sayyahzadeh, H. (2010). Effect of different levels of dried citrus pulp on performance, egg quality, and blood parameters of laying hens in early phase of production. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 42(4), 737-742.
|Nicolakakis, I., Dotas, D., & Imamidou, A. (1999). Digestibility and energy value of pig diets containing different levels of dried citrus pulp with enzymes. Epitheorese Zootehnikes Epistemes, 26, 43-54.|
|Norton, G. (1991). Proteinase inhibitors: In D'mello, J. P., Duffus, C. M., & Duffus, J. H. (eds). Toxic substances in crop plant.Royal Society of Chemistry.Cambridge Press. U. K. Pp. 68-106.
|Spackman, D. H. Stein, E. H and Moore, S. C. (1958). Automatic recording apparatus for use in the chromatography of amino acids. Analytical chemistry, 30, 1191.
|Steel, R. G., & Torrie, J. H. (1980). Principles and Procedures of Statistics: A biometrical approach. 3rd Edition.McGraw – Hill Book Coy, N.Y. U.S.A.|