Integrity Research Journals

Model: Open Access/Peer Reviewed
DOI: 10.31248/AJPB
Start Year: 2019

Post-harvest fungal rot of green pepper fruits (Capscium annuum): Methanolic extracts of tropical spices as bio rescue agents   |   Article Number: FCC9ED702   |   Vol.4 (1) - February 2023

Received Date: 25 April 2022   |   Accepted Date: 29 December 2022  |   Published Date: 28 February 2023

Authors:  J. Y. Ijato* , O. M. Obembe , O. K. Salami , O. O. Olajide , B. O. Ojo , H. O. Yakubu and B. A. Adanikin

This study aimed at evaluating the control potential of some essential oils on green pepper fruit (Capscium annuum) rot. Samples of green pepper fruits (infected and healthy) and spices were obtained from Ado-Ekiti market, fungal rot pathogens were isolated from infected green pepper fruit and pathogenicity test was carried out to authenticate the pathogenic status of the fungal isolates. The fungi isolated from the green pepper fruits were: Aspergillus spp, Cladosprium spp. Fusarium solani, Rhizopus stolonifer, Mucor spp. Alternaria spp. The fungal isolates were identified using cultural and morphological features such as colony growth pattern, conidial morphology and pigmentation. Extracts of clove, ginger, and garlic were obtained using established standards. The fungal inoculum was prepared from 5-days old culture grown on potato dextrose agar and the effects of the essential oils were determined on the pepper fruit rot. The sensitivity of the fungal isolates to the extracts was found by assessing the diameter of the zone of inhibition in which significant susceptibility was taken as 25 mm in diameter. The effects of various rot fungi on the carbohydrate content of green pepper showed values of 32.85, 33.57, 33.12, 33.22, 32.78, and 33.57% by Aspergillus spp, Cladosprium spp, Fusarium solani, Rhizopus stolonifer, Mucor spp and Alternaria spp respectively. The effect of various rot fungi on the moisture content of green pepper showed 19.68% for Cladosporium spp, followed by Fusarium solani (19. 24%) while the least was Aspergillus spp (18.59%). The effects of various rot fungi on the total ash of green pepper showed Mucor spp (18.87%), followed by Cladosporium (18.81%) and Aspergillus spp (18.61%). The effects of various rot fungi on the crude fat content of green pepper showed Fusarium solani and Mucor 9.97% while the least was Aspergillus spp (9.35%). The effects of various rot fungi on the protein content of green pepper showed a value of 15.96% for Cladosporium spp while the least effect was from Alternaria spp (15.01%). Rot fungi exhibited various degrees of effects on the nutritional contents of infected green pepper fruits. Therefore, various biological controls of fungal fruits rot, such as the application of powder extracts of clove, ginger and garlic can be adopted, these applications have been established for controlling fruit rot of green pepper fruits in this research.

Ademoh, O. F., Afolabi, A. M., Orisasona B. A., & Olowolaju E. D. (2017). Isolation and Identification of Rot Fungi on Post-Harvest of Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Fruits. AASCIT Journal of Biology. 3(5), 24-29.
Al-Hindi, R. R., Al-Najada, A. R., & Mohamed, S. A. (2011) Isolation and identification of some fruit spoilage fungi: Screening of plant cell wall degrading enzymes. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 5(4), 443-448.
Alsohaili, S. A., & Bani-Hasan, B. M. (2018). Morphological and molecular identification of fungi isolated from different environmental sources in the Northern Eastern desert of Jordan. Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences, 11(3), 329-337.
Alves, K. F., Laranjeira, D., & Câmara, M. P. S (2015). Efficacy of plant extracts for anthracnose control in bell pepper fruits under controlled conditions. Horticultura Brasileira, 33(3), 332-338.
AOAC (2000). Official methods of analysis, 17th Edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, Virginia.
AOAC (2009). Official methods of analysis. 21st Edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, Virginia.
Baiyewu, R. A., Amusa, N. A., Ayoola, O. A., & Babalola, O. O. (2007). Survey of the post-harvest diseases and aflatoxin contamination of marketed pawpaw fruit (Carica papaya L) in South-Western Nigeria. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 2(4), 178-181.
Balogun, O. S., Odeyemi, G. A., & Fawole, O. B. (2005) Evaluation of the pathogenic effect of some fungal isolates on fruits and seedlings of pepper (Capsicum species). Journal of Agricultural Research and Development, 4(2), 159-169.
Benavides, G. A., Squadrito, G. L., Mills, R. W., Patel, H. D., Isbell, T. S., Patel, R. P., ... & Kraus, D. W. (2007). Hydrogen sulfide mediates the vasoactivity of garlic. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(46), 17977-17982.
Chandrashekara, C., Kumar R., Bhatt, J. C., & Chandrashekara, K. N (2012). Suppressive soils in plant disease management. In: Singh, V. K., Singh, Y, Singh, A. (eds.). Eco-friendly innovative approaches in plant disease management. International Book Distributors, India. Pp. 241-256.
Cheesbrough, M. (2000). District laboratory practice manual in tropical countries part 2. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Pp. 178-179.
Chiejina, N. V. (2008). Mycoflora of some salad vegetables. Biological Research, 6(2), 392-39.
Fagbohun, E. D., & Bamikole, A. M. (2019). Antifungal effects of methanolic extract of stem bark of bridelia ferruginea benth. leaves of Aloe vera L. and stem bark of Alstonia boonei De Wild. Microbiology Research Journal International, 27(2), 1-11.
Fawole, M. O., & Oso, B. A. (1995) Laboratory manual of microbiology. Spectrum Books Limited Ibadan, Owerri, Pp. 71-81.
Heiser, C. B., Mason, J. R., & Pickersgill, B. (2010). Names for the cultivated Capsicum species (Solanaceae). Taxon, 18(3), 277-283.
Hokkanen, H. M. T., Zec-Vojinovic, M., Husberg, G. B., Menzler-Hokkanen, I., Büchs, W., Klukowski, Z., Luik, A., Nilsson, C., Ulber, B., & Williams, I. H. (2006, April). Effectiveness of entomopathogenic nematodes in the control of oilseed rape pests. In CD Proc International symposium on integrated pest management in oilseed rape, 3-5 April 2006, Paulinerkirche Goettingen, Germany.
Ijato J. Y. (2021a). Evaluation of bio-protective capacity of some botanicals against post harvest fruit rot microbes of pepper (Capsicum annum L). Researcher 13(3), 14-20.
Ijato J. Y. (2021b). Bioassay of some plant oil against bacterial rot pathogens. Journal of American Science, 17(5), 30-36.
Ijato J. Y. (2021c). Antibacterial activity of Vernonia amygdalina on post harvest organisms associated with cocoyam (Colocasia esculentus L) corms rot. Journal of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, 7(2), 1-4.
Ijato J. Y. (2021d). Assessment of antibacterial capacity of Vernonia amygdalina against post harvest fruit rot organisms of okra (Abelmoshus esculentus L moench). Life Science Journal 18(5), 50-53
Ijato J. Y., Joseph, A. O., Ofon-mbuk, D. A., & Olaposi, O. B. (2021). Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus stolonifer and Mucor spp. associated with deteriorated mango and orange fruits: Occurrence and in vitro susceptibility to extracts of Aspilia africana (Pers.) CD Adams (Asteraceae). Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research, 5(9), 1650-1655.
Ijato, J. Y., Olajide, O. O. & Ojo, B. O. (2022b). Rhizoctonia solani, Aspergillus niger, Streptococcus pyrogenes, Alcaligenes faecalis and Proteus vulgaris selectively associated with two varieties of banana and effects of storage conditions on nutritional composition of banana. International Journal of Frontline Research and Reviews, 1(1), 7-13.
Ijato, J. Y., Olajide, O. O., & Ojo, B. O. (2022a). Studies on bioactivities of various parts of Murraya Koeningii (l) Spreng (curry tree) on fungal isolates from tomatoes. Advanced Journal of Plant Biology, 3(1), 1-6.
Magan, N., & Aldred, D. (2007). Post-harvest control strategies: minimizing mycotoxins in the food chain. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 119(1-2), 131-139.
Mensah, K., & Owusu, E. (2011). Fruit bornemicoflora of Capsicum annuum L. (pepper) Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench (Okra), and Lycopersicon esculentumMill. (tomato) from Accra metropolis. African Journal of Food Sciences, 6(1), 1-7.
Onuorah, S., & Orji, M. U. (2015). Fungi associated with the spoilage of post-harvest tomato fruits sold in major markets in Awka, Nigeria. Universal Journal of Microbiology Research, 3(2), 11-16.
Parveen, S., Gupta, D. B., Dass, S., Kumar, A., Pandey, A., Chakraborty, S., & Chakraborty, N. (2016). Chickpea ferritin CaFer1 participates in oxidative stress response and promotes growth and development. Scientific Reports, 6, Article number 31218.
Rashad al-hindi, A., Rashed A., & Saleh, A. H. M. (2011). Isolation and identification of some fruit spoilage fungi: Screening of plant cell wall degrading enzymes. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 5(4), 443-448.
Salau, I. A. (2012) Studies of fungi associated with human skin and vegetable disease in fadamaland of Sokoto metropolis, Sokoto state, Nigeria. M.Sc. Thesis, Usman Dan Fodio University Sokoto, Nigeria.
Saravanakumar, D., Kavino, M., Raguchander, T., Subbian, P., & Samiyappan, R. (2011). Plant growth promoting bacteria enhance water stress resistance in green gram plants. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 33(1), 203-209.
Sasvari, J. (2005). Paprika: A Spicy Memoir from Hungary. Toronto, ON: Can West Books. p. 202.
Singh, M., & Singh, R. P. (2005). Management of mushroom pathogens through botanicals. Indian Phytopathology, 58(2), 189-193.
Snowdon, A. L. (1990). A colour atlas of post-harvest diseases and disorders of fruits and vegetables. Volume 1: General introduction and fruits. Wolfe Scientific Ltd.
Ugwu, O. C., Chukwuezi, F. O., & Ozougwu, V. E. O. (2014). Microbial agents of tomato spoilage in Onitsha metropolis. Advances in Biological Research, 8(2), 87-93.
Zorya, S., Morgan, N., Diaz Rios, L., Hodges, R., Bennett, B., Stathers, T., & Lamb, J. (2011). Missing food, the case of post-harvest grain losses in Sub-Saharan Africa. Report No. 60371. The World Bank, Washington DC. 10p.