Integrity Research Journals

ISSN: 2536-7064
Model: Open Access/Peer Reviewed
DOI: 10.31248/JBBD
Start Year: 2016

Evaluation of fermented cassava (Manihot esculenta) peel meal on the growth of Clarias gariepinus   |   Article Number: 4C57EFD11   |   Vol.3 (5) - October 2018

Received Date: 03 May 2018   |   Accepted Date: 26 July 2018  |   Published Date: 30 October 2018

Author:  Adejoke A. Adewumi

Keywords: growth, Cassava peel, catfish, cyanide, digestibility, fillets, peel, phytate

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of cassava (Manihot esculenta, (NR 8082) peel, fermented with wastewater from the fermented cassava pulp, as a substitute for maize in the diet of C. gariepinus juveniles on the growth performance of C. gariepinus. Five iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous diets were formulated containing 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% maize replacement with cassava peel meal (tagged diets B25, C50, D75, E100). The control was tagged diet A0. Two sets of experiment were designed using the formulated diets. One set, which lasted for 10 days, was designed to monitor the apparent protein digestibility of the diet and the second one to evaluate the growth, nutrient utilization (MWG, FCR, SGR) and the biochemical composition of the fillets of the fish, fed for a period of 8 weeks, in the laboratory. Fermentation significantly reduced (p< 0.05) the phytate (698 mg 100g-1) and cyanide contents (23.5 mg kg-1) of the cassava peels, when compared with those of the unfermented cassava peels (1012 mg 100g-1, 44.6 mg kg-1). The final weight gain (13.47g), daily weight gain (0.19g), percentage weight gain (243.62%), food conversion ratio (5.67), protein efficiency ratio (1.20) and the apparent protein digestibility (APD) of the fish fed with the control diet (diet A0) were not significantly (P>0.05) higher than those of the fish fed diets B25 and C50, but were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those of the fish fed diets D75 and E100. The specific growth rate and survival in all the treatments were not significantly different (P>0.05) from one another. The results revealed that 50% replacement of maize with cassava peel meal (diet C50) can be tolerated by C. gariepinus, without compromising growth, nutrient utilization and digestibility. The percentage survival of the fish fed the control, test diets B25, C50 and D75 were not significantly different (p>0.05) but were significantly different from those fish fed diet E100. It can be concluded that replacing maize with up to 50% replacement level of cassava peels fermented with wastewater from the fermented cassava pulp is not deleterious to growth and nutrient utilization of C. gariepinus. Fermentation might have thus reduced the toxicity and increased the nutrient value of the cassava peels, otherwise regarded as agricultural wastes, and placed it among basal feedstuffs, suitable for replacing maize in C. gariepinus diet.

Achinewhu, S. C., Barber, L. I., & Ijeoma, I. O. (1998). Physicochemical properties and garification (gari yield) of selected cassava cultivars in Rivers State, Nigeria. Plant Foods for Human Nutri. 52(2), 133-140.
Adegbola, A. A. (1977). Methionine as an additive to cassava-based diets. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Cassava as Animal Feed. NestelBand GrahamM (eds.), University of Guelph, 18-20 April 1976, Ontario, Canada.IDRC Ottawa. Pp. 9-17.
Adewumi, A. A., & Fagbenro, O. A. (2010). Fisheries and aquaculture development in Nigeria: An appraisal. Proceedings of 2010 International Conference for Bio-informatics and Biomed. Tech., China. April, 2010; 5p.
Adeyemo, O. K. (2005). Haematological and histopathological effects of cassava mill effluent on C. gariepinus. Afri. J. of Biomed. Res., 8, 179 -183.
Antai, S. P., & Mbongo, P. M. (1994). Utilization of cassava peels as substrate for crude protein formation. Plant Foods for Human Nutri. 46(4), 345-351.
AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) (2006). Official methods of Analysis. 17th Edition. Williams S. (Ed.). Arlington, V.A. 1125p.
Aro, S. O., Aletor, V. A., Tewe, O. O., & Agbede, J. O. (2010). Nutritional potentials of cassava tuber wastes: A case study of a cassava starch processing factory in south-western Nigeria. Livestock Res. for Rural Development, 22(11), 42-47.
Charles, A. L., Sriroth, K., & Huang, T. C. (2005). Proximate composition, mineral contents, hydrogen cyanide and phytic acid of 5 cassava genetypes. Food Chem., 92, 615-620.
Cumbana, A., Minone, E., Cliff, J., & Bradbury, J. H. (2007). Reduction of cyanide content of cassava flour in Mozambique by wetting method. Food Chem., 101, 894-897.
Duffus, C. M., & Duffus, J. H. (1991). Toxicity of cassava. In: D'Mello FJP Duffus CM and JH Duffus (Eds). Toxic Substances in Crop Plants. The Royal Society of Chemistry, Thomas Graham House, Science Park, Cambridge CB4 4WF, Cambridge. Pp. 1-21.
Ellestad, L. E., Angel, R. J. R. J. S., & Soares, J. H. (2002). Intestinal phytase II: a comparison of activity and in vivo phytate hydrolysis in three teleost species with differing digestive strategies. Fish Physiol. and Biochem. 26(3), 259-273.
Fagbenro, O. A., & Arowosoge, I. A. (1991). Replacement value of some household wastes as energy substitutes in low-cost diets for rearing catfish in South-Western Nigeria. Bioresource Tech., 37(3), 197-203.
Faturoti, E. O., & Akinbote, R. E. (1986). Growth response and nutrient utilization in Oreochromis niloticus fed varying levels of dietary cassava peel. Nigerian Journal of Applied Fisheries and Hydrobiology, 1, 47-50.
Hilditch, T. P., & Williams, P. N. (1974). The Chemical Constitution of Natural Fats. 4thedition. Chapman and Hall. London. p. 45.
Hudson, B. I. F., & Ogunsua, A. O. (1974). Lipids of cassava tuberous roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz). J.of the Sci. of Food and Agric., 25, 1503-1508.
Job, T. A. (1975). Utilization and protein supplementation of cassava for animal feeding and the effects of sources on cyanide detoxification. A Ph.D Thesis, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. 540p.
Liener, I. E. (1989). Antinutritional factors in legume seeds: state of the art. Recent Advances of Research in Anti-nutritional factors in legume seeds, Pp. 6-13.
Manner, J. H., & Gomez, G. (1973). Implications of cyanide toxicity in animal feeding studies, using high cassava rations. In: Proceedings of Chronic Cassava Workshop. Nestle B and R MacIntyre (Eds.), 29-30th Jan., 1973, London, England. IDRC Ottawa. Pp. 113-120.
Mgbenka, B. O., Ugwu, L. L. C., & Asogwa, M. O. (2004). Influence of dietary levels of cassava (Manihot esculenta) peel meal on feed efficiency and productive protein value of young tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Trewavas). J. of Sustainable Agric. and the Environ. 6(2), 148-156.
Montagnac, J. A., Davis, C. R., & Tanumihardjo, S. A. (2009). Nutritional value of cassava for use as a staple food and recent advances for improvement. Comp. Rev. in Food Sci. and Food Safety, 8(3), 181-194.
Motarjemi, Y. (2002). Impact of small scale fermentation technology on food safety in developing countries. Intern. J. of Food Micro., 75(3), 213-229.
Nwokoro, S. O., Adegunloye, H. D., & Ikhinmwin, A. F. (2005). Nutritional composition of garri sievates collected from some locations in Southern Nigeria. Pakistan J. of Nutr., 4(4), 257-261.
Oboh, G. (2006). Nutrient enrichment of cassava peels using a mixed culture of Saccharomyces cerevisae and Lactobacillus spp solid media fermentation techniques. Electronic J. of Biotech., 9(1), 46-49.
Oboh, G., Akindahunsi, A. A., & Oshodi, A. A. (2002). Nutrient and anti-nutrient content of Aspergillus niger fermented cassava products (flour and gari). J. of Food Comp. and Anal., 15(5), 617-622.
Olurin, K. B., Olojo, E. A. A., & Olukoya, O. A. (2006). Growth of African catfish, C. gariepinus fingerlings, fed different levels of cassava. World J. of Zool., 1(1), 54-56.
Omole, T. A. (1977). Cassava in the nutrition of layers. In: Cassava as Animal feed. Proceedings of Cassava as Animal Feed Workshop. Nestle B and Graham M. (Eds), University of Guelph, Canada. IDRC Ottawa. 18-20th April, 1977. Pp. 51-55.
Phonekhampheng, O., Hung, L. T., & Lindberg, J. E. (2008). Nutritive value of potential feed resources used in Laos for African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) production. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 20, Article 207.
Richardson, N. L., Higgs, D. A., Beames, R. M., & McBride, J. R. (1985). Influence of dietary calcium, phosphorus, zinc and sodium phytate level on cataract incidence, growth and histopathology in juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). The Journal of nutrition, 115(5), 553-567.
Saha, D. C., & Gilbreath, R. L. (1991). Analytical recovery of chromium from diet and faeces determined by colorimetry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 55(3), 433-446.
Sengxayalth, P., & Preston, T. R. (2017). Fermentation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) pulp with yeast, urea and di-ammonium phosphate (DAP). Livestock Research for Rural Development, 29(9).
Teskeredžić, Z., Higgs, D. A., Dosanjh, B. S., McBride, J. R., Hardy, R. W., Beames, R. M., Jones, J. D., Simell, M., Vaara, T., & Bridges, R. B. (1995). Assessment of undephytinized and dephytinized rapeseed protein concentrate as sources of dietary protein for juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture, 131(3-4), 261-277.
Tewe, O. O. (1992). Detoxification of cassava products and effects of residual toxins on consuming animals. Roots, tubers, plantains and bananas in animal feeding (Editors: D Machin and AW Speedy). FAO Animal Production and Health. Paper, 95, 85-91.
Tweyongyere, R., & Katongole, I. (2002). Cyanogenic potential of cassava peels and their detoxification for utilization as livestock feed. Veterinary and human toxicology, 44(6), 366-369.
Ufodike, E. B. C., & Matty, A. J. (1983). Growth responses and nutrient digestibility in mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio) fed different levels of cassava and rice. Aquaculture, 31(1), 41-50.
Wheeler, E. L., & Ferrel, R. E. (1971). A method for phytic acid determination in wheat and wheat fractions. Cereal chemistry, 48(3), 312-320.